Neural Plasticity 2022Ototoxic hearing loss results from hair cell death via reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction and consequent apoptosis. We investigated the effects of vitamin C...
Ototoxic hearing loss results from hair cell death via reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction and consequent apoptosis. We investigated the effects of vitamin C (VC) on neomycin-induced HEI-OC1 cell damage, as well as the mechanism of inhibition. HEI-OC1 cells were treated with neomycin or with vitamin C (VC). The results indicated that VC had a protective effect on neomycin-induced HEI-OC1 cell death. Mechanistically, VC decreased neomycin-induced ROS generation, suppressed cell death, and increased cell viability. VC inhibited neomycin-induced apoptosis, ameliorated neomycin reduced antiapoptotic Bcl-2 expression, and suppressed neomycin increased expression of proapoptotic Bax, caspase-3 cleavage and caspase-8. TUNEL labeling demonstrated that VC blocked neomycin-induced apoptosis. Further study revealed that the effect of VC on neomycin-induced hair cell death was through interference with JNK activation and p38 phosphorylation. These results indicate that VC via suppressed ROS generation, which inhibited cell death by counteracting apoptotic signaling induced by neomycin in cells. Hence, VC is a potential candidate for protection agent against neomycin-induced HEI-OC1 cell ototoxicity.
Topics: Apoptosis; Ascorbic Acid; Cell Survival; Hair Cells, Auditory; Neomycin; Reactive Oxygen Species
Design and characterization of 3D printed, neomycin-eluting poly-L-lactide mats for wound-healing applications.Journal of Materials Science. Materials... Apr 2021This study evaluates the suitability of 3D printed biodegradable mats to load and deliver the topical antibiotic, neomycin, for up to 3 weeks in vitro. A 3D printer...
This study evaluates the suitability of 3D printed biodegradable mats to load and deliver the topical antibiotic, neomycin, for up to 3 weeks in vitro. A 3D printer equipped with a hot melt extruder was used to print bandage-like wound coverings with porous sizes appropriate for cellular attachment and viability. The semicrystalline polyester, poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) was used as the base polymer, coated (post-printing) with polyethylene glycols (PEGs) of MWs 400 Da, 6 kDa, or 20 kDa to enable manipulation of physicochemical and biological properties to suit intended applications. The mats were further loaded with a topical antibiotic (neomycin sulfate), and cumulative drug-release monitored for 3 weeks in vitro. Microscopic imaging as well as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) studies showed pore dimensions of 100 × 400 µm. These pore dimensions were achieved without compromising mechanical strength; because of the "tough" individual fibers constituting the mat (Young's Moduli of 50 ± 20 MPa and Elastic Elongation of 10 ± 5%). The in vitro dissolution study showed first-order release kinetics for neomycin during the first 20 h, followed by diffusion-controlled (Fickian) release for the remaining duration of the study. The release of neomycin suggested that the ability to load neomycin on to PLLA mats increases threefold, as the MW of the applied PEG coating is lowered from 20 kDa to 400 Da. Overall, this study demonstrates a successful approach to using a 3D printer to prepare porous degradable mats for antibiotic delivery with potential applications to dermal regeneration and tissue engineering. Illustration of the process used to create and characterize 3D printed PLLA mats.
Topics: Bandages; Biocompatible Materials; Calorimetry, Differential Scanning; Drug Liberation; Humans; Materials Testing; Microscopy, Electron, Scanning; Neomycin; Polyesters; Printing, Three-Dimensional; Wound Healing
Polimery W MedycynieNeomycin is a natural aminoglycoside antibiotic produced by actinomycete Streptomyces fradiae. It exerts bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity against Gram-negative...
Neomycin is a natural aminoglycoside antibiotic produced by actinomycete Streptomyces fradiae. It exerts bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity against Gram-negative bacteria, certain Gram-positive bacteria and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Neomycin inhibits the biosynthesis of bacterial proteins by impairing their life functions, leading to death of cells.
To examine the effect of molecular weight of polylactide (PLA), the applied stabilizer as well as mixing speed used in the encapsulation process on the size of obtained spheres. Examination of the kinetics of neomycin release from the obtained PLA spheres and determination of the antimicrobial activity of the neomycin-containing spheres against selected strains of bacteria, yeast and fungi have also been necessary.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Polylactide (Mn 3000-40,000 g/mol) was obtained in-house. Other materials used in the study were as follows: L-lactic acid (PLLA; Mn 66,500 g/mol and 86,000 g/mol), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a stabilizer of emulsion (Mw 30,000 g/mol, 130,000 g/mol; degree of hydrolysis 88%) as well as dichloromethane, p.a. and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), p.a. as solvents. Distilled water was obtained in-house. Neomycin sulfate was used for encapsulation; phosphate (pH 7.2) and acetate (pH 4.5) buffers were used for the examination of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) dissolution profile. Antimicrobial activity was tested using commercial cell lines and the following media: Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA), Mueller-Hinton broth (MHB), yeast extract peptone dextrose (YPD), and potato dextrose agar (PDA).
Neomycin-containing PLA spheres were obtained using an emulsion method. The average molecular weight of PLA, the average molecular weight of PVA and mixing speed on the size of obtained spheres were investigated. Furthermore, the profile of API dissolution from the spheres and antimicrobial activity of neomycin-containing spheres against certain strains of bacteria, yeast and fungi were determined.
We demonstrated that efficient encapsulation of neomycin requires spheres of a <200 mm diameter.
Topics: Anti-Bacterial Agents; Kinetics; Neomycin; Polyesters; Streptomyces
Efficacy of mupirocin, neomycin and octenidine for nasal Staphylococcus aureus decolonisation: a retrospective cohort study.Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection... Jan 2022Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) causes significant morbidity. Methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) is the most frequent organism, and the majority are...
Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) causes significant morbidity. Methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) is the most frequent organism, and the majority are endogenous. Decolonisation reduces PJIs but there is a paucity of evidence comparing treatments. Aims; compare 3 nasal decolonisation treatments at (1) achieving MSSA decolonisation, (2) preventing PJI.
Our hospital prospectively collected data on our MSSA decolonisation programme since 2013, including; all MSSA carriers, treatment received, MSSA status at time of surgery and all PJIs. Prior to 2017 MSSA carriers received nasal mupirocin or neomycin, from August 2017 until August 2019 nasal octenidine was used.
During the study period 15,958 primary hip and knee replacements were performed. 3200 (20.1%) were MSSA positive at preoperative screening and received decolonisation treatment, 698 mupirocin, 1210 neomycin and 1221 octenidine. Mupirocin (89.1%) and neomycin (90.9%) were more effective at decolonisation than octenidine (50.0%, P < 0.0001). There was no difference in PJI rates (P = 0.452).
Mupirocin and neomycin are more effective than octenidine at MSSA decolonisation. There was poor correlation between the MSSA status after treatment (on day of surgery) and PJI rates. Further research is needed to compare alternative MSSA decolonisation treatments.
Topics: Anti-Bacterial Agents; Anti-Infective Agents, Local; Cohort Studies; Drug Resistance, Bacterial; England; Imines; Joint Diseases; Methicillin; Mupirocin; Neomycin; Nose Diseases; Pyridines; Retrospective Studies; Staphylococcal Infections; Staphylococcus aureus
RNA Biology Apr 2021Gene regulation in prokaryotes often depends on RNA elements such as riboswitches or RNA thermometers located in the 5' untranslated region of mRNA. Rearrangements of...
Gene regulation in prokaryotes often depends on RNA elements such as riboswitches or RNA thermometers located in the 5' untranslated region of mRNA. Rearrangements of the RNA structure in response, e.g., to the binding of small molecules or ions control translational initiation or premature termination of transcription and thus mRNA expression. Such structural responses are amenable to computational modelling, making it possible to rationally design synthetic riboswitches for a given aptamer. Starting from an artificial aptamer, we construct the first synthetic transcriptional riboswitches that respond to the antibiotic neomycin. We show that the switching behaviour critically depends not only on the sequence of the riboswitch itself, but also on its sequence context. We therefore developed methods to predict the impact of the context, making it possible to adapt the design and to rescue non-functional riboswitches. We furthermore analyse the influence of 5' hairpins with varying stability on neomycin riboswitch activity. Our data highlight the limitations of a simple plug-and-play approach in the design of complex genetic circuits and demonstrate that detailed computational models significantly simplify, improve, and automate the design of transcriptional circuits. Our design software is available under a free licence on GitHub (https://github.com/xileF1337/riboswitch_design).
Topics: Aptamers, Nucleotide; Cloning, Molecular; Computational Biology; Computer Simulation; Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial; Genes, Reporter; Neomycin; Nucleic Acid Conformation; RNA, Bacterial; Riboswitch; Software; Synthetic Biology
Hippo/YAP signaling pathway protects against neomycin-induced hair cell damage in the mouse cochlea.Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences :... Jan 2022The Hippo/Yes-associated protein (YAP) signaling pathway has been shown to be able to maintain organ size and homeostasis by regulating cell proliferation,...
The Hippo/Yes-associated protein (YAP) signaling pathway has been shown to be able to maintain organ size and homeostasis by regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The abuse of aminoglycosides is one of the main causes of sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL). However, the role of the Hippo/YAP signaling pathway in cochlear hair cell (HC) damage protection in the auditory field is still unclear. In this study, we used the YAP agonist XMU-MP-1 (XMU) and the inhibitor Verteporfin (VP) to regulate the Hippo/YAP signaling pathway in vitro. We showed that YAP overexpression reduced neomycin-induced HC loss, while downregulated YAP expression increased HC vulnerability after neomycin exposure in vitro. We next found that activation of YAP expression inhibited C-Abl-mediated cell apoptosis, which led to reduced HC loss. Many previous studies have reported that the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is significantly increased in cochlear HCs after neomycin exposure. In our study, we also found that YAP overexpression significantly decreased ROS accumulation, while downregulation of YAP expression increased ROS accumulation. In summary, our results demonstrate that the Hippo/YAP signaling pathway plays an important role in reducing HC injury and maintaining auditory function after aminoglycoside exposure. YAP overexpression could protect against neomycin-induced HC loss by inhibiting C-Abl-mediated cell apoptosis and decreasing ROS accumulation, suggesting that YAP could be a novel therapeutic target for aminoglycosides-induced sensorineural hearing loss in the clinic.
Topics: Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents; Hair Cells, Auditory; Hippo Signaling Pathway; Mice; Neomycin; Protective Factors; Protein Synthesis Inhibitors; Signal Transduction; YAP-Signaling Proteins
Liproxstatin-1 Protects Hair Cell-Like HEI-OC1 Cells and Cochlear Hair Cells against Neomycin Ototoxicity.Oxidative Medicine and Cellular... 2020Ferroptosis is a recently discovered iron-dependent form of oxidative programmed cell death distinct from caspase-dependent apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the...
Ferroptosis is a recently discovered iron-dependent form of oxidative programmed cell death distinct from caspase-dependent apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the effect of ferroptosis in neomycin-induced hair cell loss by using selective ferroptosis inhibitor liproxstatin-1 (Lip-1). Cell viability was identified by CCK8 assay. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined by DCFH-DA and cellROX green staining. The mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ) was evaluated by TMRM staining. Intracellular iron and lipid peroxides were detected with Mito-FerroGreen and Liperfluo probes. We found that ferroptosis can be induced in both HEI-OC1 cells and neonatal mouse cochlear explants, as evidenced by Mito-FerroGreen and Liperfluo staining. Further experiments showed that pretreatment with Lip-1 significantly alleviated neomycin-induced increased ROS generation and disruption in ΔΨ in the HEI-OC1 cells. In parallel, Lip-1 significantly attenuated neomycin-induced hair cell damage in neonatal mouse cochlear explants. Collectively, these results suggest a novel mechanism for neomycin-induced ototoxicity and suggest that ferroptosis inhibition may be a new clinical intervention to prevent hearing loss.
Topics: Animals; Cell Line; Hair Cells, Auditory; Mice; Neomycin; Ototoxicity; Quinoxalines; Reactive Oxygen Species; Spiro Compounds
Modulation of Insulin Resistance, Dyslipidemia and Serum Metabolome in iNOS Knockout Mice following Treatment with Nitrite, Metformin, Pioglitazone, and a Combination of...International Journal of Molecular... Dec 2021Oxidative and nitrosative stress plays a pivotal role in the incidence of metabolic disorders. Studies from this lab and others in iNOS mice have demonstrated occurrence...
Modulation of Insulin Resistance, Dyslipidemia and Serum Metabolome in iNOS Knockout Mice following Treatment with Nitrite, Metformin, Pioglitazone, and a Combination of Ampicillin and Neomycin.
Oxidative and nitrosative stress plays a pivotal role in the incidence of metabolic disorders. Studies from this lab and others in iNOS mice have demonstrated occurrence of insulin resistance (IR), hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia highlighting the importance of optimal redox balance. The present study evaluates role of nitrite, L-arginine, antidiabetics (metformin, pioglitazone) and antibiotics (ampicillin-neomycin combination, metronidazole) on metabolic perturbations observed in iNOS mice. The animals were monitored for glucose tolerance (IPGTT), IR (insulin, HOMA-IR, QUICKI), circulating lipids and serum metabolomics (LC-MS). Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and IR were rescued by nitrite, antidiabetics, and antibiotics treatments in iNOS mice. Glucose intolerance was improved with nitrite, metformin and pioglitazone treatment, while ampicillin-neomycin combination normalised the glucose utilization in iNOS mice. Increased serum phosphatidylethanolamine lipids in iNOS mice were reversed by metformin, pioglitazone and ampicillin-neomycin; dyslipidemia was however marginally improved by nitrite treatment. The metabolic improvements were associated with changes in selected serum metabolites-purines, ceramide, 10-hydroxydecanoate, glucosaminate, diosmetin, sebacic acid, 3-nitrotyrosine and cysteamine. Bacterial metabolites-hippurate, indole-3-ethanol; IR marker-aminoadipate and oxidative stress marker-ophthalmate were reduced by pioglitazone and ampicillin-neomycin, but not by nitrite and metformin treatment. Results obtained in the present study suggest a crucial role of gut microbiota in the metabolic perturbations observed in iNOS mice.
Topics: Ampicillin; Animals; Drug Therapy, Combination; Dyslipidemias; Glucose; Homeostasis; Hypoglycemic Agents; Insulin; Insulin Resistance; Male; Metabolome; Metabolomics; Metformin; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Mice, Knockout; Neomycin; Nitric Oxide; Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II; Nitrites; Pioglitazone
The effect of neomycin inclusion in milk replacer on the health, growth, and performance of male Holstein calves during preweaning.Journal of Dairy Science Jul 2021The prophylactic use of oral antimicrobials, such as neomycin, in milk replacer (MR) or whole milk is a common practice in calf-rearing that is thought to aid in...
The prophylactic use of oral antimicrobials, such as neomycin, in milk replacer (MR) or whole milk is a common practice in calf-rearing that is thought to aid in preventing disease. Heavy reliance on antimicrobials is of concern not only because of the development of antimicrobial resistance, but also because of the potentially negative effects on health. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of neomycin on calf health and growth performance. One hundred and sixty calves (approximately 3-10 d of age), distributed across 2 experimental periods, were stratified by body weight (BW) and serum total protein, and assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: control (CON; nonmedicated MR, n = 60), short-term antibiotic (ST; neomycin mixed in MR from d 1-14, n = 50), or long-term antibiotic (LT; neomycin in MR from d 1-28, n = 50). Arrival BW (47.69 ± 0.87 kg) and serum total protein (5.67 ± 0.09 g/dL) were not different between treatment groups. Neomycin in ST and LT was dosed in MR at a rate of 20 mg/kg of BW and was adjusted weekly according to BW. Calf BW was measured weekly for 49 d, and health indicators (fecal score, attitude score, respiratory score, and rectal temperature), MR intake, starter intake, and the use of additional electrolytes and antimicrobials were recorded daily. Calves in the CON group experienced a higher proportion of days with diarrhea (20.32 ± 0.02%) compared with ST (14.70 ± 0.02%) or LT (13.80 ± 0.02%) calves, as well as longer bouts of diarrhea (7.45 ± 0.38 d, 5.69 ± 0.46 d, and 5.62 ± 0.45 d for CON, ST, and LT calves, respectively). Calves in the CON group also experienced higher fecal scores (score of 0.64 ± 0.04) than ST (score of 0.53 ± 0.04) or LT (score of 0.49 ± 0.04) calves, especially at d 7. However, no differences were observed in other health-related measures. The time to reach first diarrhea and first respiratory illness was not different between treatments, nor was the time to recover from respiratory illness. The time to intervention with additional electrolytes or antimicrobials was not different between treatment groups. Furthermore, growth performance, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio were not different. No differences were found when comparing ST and LT, except in the defined daily dose of total antimicrobials received. Calves in the LT group received a higher overall dose than ST calves, and both ST and LT calves received a higher dose than CON calves, which received no prophylactic antimicrobials. Given that there were no differences in performance variables and no additional health benefits aside from reduced fecal scores in calves fed neomycin, current practices involving the use of antimicrobials on dairy and veal operations need to be considered more prudently.
Topics: Animal Feed; Animals; Body Weight; Cattle; Diet; Male; Milk; Neomycin; Weaning
MSphere Feb 2019Coxsackievirus typically infects humans via the gastrointestinal tract, which has a large number of microorganisms collectively referred to as the microbiota. To study...
Coxsackievirus typically infects humans via the gastrointestinal tract, which has a large number of microorganisms collectively referred to as the microbiota. To study how the intestinal microbiota influences enteric virus infection, several groups have used an antibiotic regimen in mice to deplete bacteria. These studies have shown that bacteria promote infection with several enteric viruses. However, very little is known about whether antibiotics influence viruses in a microbiota-independent manner. In this study, we sought to determine the effects of antibiotics on coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) using an cell culture model in the absence of bacteria. We determined that an aminoglycoside antibiotic, neomycin, enhanced the plaque size of CVB3 strain Nancy. Neomycin treatment did not alter viral attachment, translation, or replication. However, we found that the positive charge of neomycin and other positively charged compounds enhanced viral diffusion by overcoming the negative inhibitory effect of sulfated polysaccharides present in agar overlays. Neomycin and the positively charged compound protamine also enhanced plaque formation of reovirus. Overall, these data provide further evidence that antibiotics can play noncanonical roles in viral infections and that this should be considered when studying enteric virus-microbiota interactions. Coxsackieviruses primarily infect the gastrointestinal tract of humans, but they can disseminate systemically and cause severe disease. Using antibiotic treatment regimens to deplete intestinal microbes in mice, several groups have shown the bacteria promote infection with a variety of enteric viruses. However, it is possible that antibiotics have microbiota-independent effects on viruses. Here we show that an aminoglycoside antibiotic, neomycin, can influence quantification of coxsackievirus in cultured cells in the absence of bacteria.
Topics: Anti-Bacterial Agents; Cell Line; Cells, Cultured; Enterovirus; Gastrointestinal Microbiome; HeLa Cells; Humans; Neomycin; Orthoreovirus, Mammalian; Viral Plaque Assay; Virus Replication