Which Occupation is Highly Associated with Cognitive Impairment? A Gender-Specific Longitudinal Study of Paid and Unpaid Occupations in South Korea.International Journal of Environmental... Oct 2020: To examine the associations between paid and unpaid occupations and the risk of cognitive impairment with respect to gender in a middle-aged population using the...
: To examine the associations between paid and unpaid occupations and the risk of cognitive impairment with respect to gender in a middle-aged population using the dataset of a nationally representative longitudinal survey. : Overall, 24,925 observations of 5865 participants aged 45-64 years were sampled from the seven waves of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing (2006-2018). A dichotomous outcome variable was derived based on the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination scores, and occupations were grouped into 12 categories, including three unpaid ones. Sociodemographics, lifestyle, and medical conditions were included as covariates in the mixed logistic regression models. Adjusted odds ratios and predicted probabilities of cognitive impairment were estimated. In the longitudinal models with all-studied covariates, the risk of cognitive impairment was similar between genders but differed across occupation categories for each gender. Moreover, the association between occupation and cognitive impairment varied between genders. Regarding the predicted probability, in men, the retired category exhibited the highest risk of cognitive impairment. However, in women, the highest risk was related to the homemakers category, with the risk being more than five times higher than those in the professionals and related workers category. Public health policies to reduce the risk of cognitive impairment in the middle-aged population need to be designed and implemented with respect to both gender and occupation.
Topics: Aging; Cognitive Dysfunction; Female; Humans; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Middle Aged; Occupations; Republic of Korea; Sex Factors
European Journal of Neurology Dec 2018Creativity in Parkinson's disease (PD) is strongly related to dopaminergic activity and medication. We hypothesized that patients with PD, including those who are in the...
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE
Creativity in Parkinson's disease (PD) is strongly related to dopaminergic activity and medication. We hypothesized that patients with PD, including those who are in the pre-diagnostic phase of PD, are prone to choose highly structured 'conventional' professional occupations and avoid highly creative 'artistic' occupations.
At baseline of the population-based Rotterdam Study, we asked 12 147 individuals aged ≥45 years about their latest occupation and categorized occupations according to the RIASEC model. Participants underwent baseline and follow-up (median 11 years) examinations for PD. We determined associations of artistic (versus any other occupation) and conventional (versus any other occupation) occupations with PD. Additionally, we pooled our results with a recently published case-control study (Radboud Study).
At baseline, conventional occupations were common [n = 4356 (36%)], whereas artistic occupations were rare [n = 137 (1%)]. There were 217 patients with PD, including 91 with prevalent PD and 126 with incident PD. The risk of PD varied substantially across occupational categories (chi-square, 14.61; P = 0.01). The penalized odds ratio (OR) of artistic occupations for PD was 0.19 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.00-1.31; P = 0.11], whereas the OR of conventional occupations for PD was 1.23 (95% CI, 0.95-1.66; P = 0.10). The direction and magnitude of ORs were similar in cross-sectional and longitudinal subsamples. Pooled ORs across the Rotterdam and Radboud Studies were 0.20 (95% CI, 0.08-0.52; P < 0.001) for artistic and 1.23 (95% CI, 0.92-1.67; P = 0.08) for conventional occupations.
The risk of PD varies substantially by choice of professional occupation. Our findings suggest that dopaminergic degeneration affects choice of occupation, which may start in the pre-diagnostic phase of PD.
Topics: Aged; Case-Control Studies; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Occupations; Parkinson Disease; Risk
Medicine Dec 2021Occupation is one of the factors contributing to the loss of sleep. Although many studies have investigated sleep loss due to irregular and nighttime shifts, the causes...
Occupation is one of the factors contributing to the loss of sleep. Although many studies have investigated sleep loss due to irregular and nighttime shifts, the causes of sleep loss in daytime workers remain unknown. The aims of the present study were to determine whether occupation is a dependent factor for sleep duration and whether working status and lifestyle are related to sleep duration.We examined the health check results of 17,519 (9028 men and 8491 women) workers who had at least 1 health check between the fiscal years 2013 and 2019. We asked about the workers' occupation, bedtime, dinner time, overtime work, and commuting time, using a self-administered questionnaire at their health check. The occupations were classified into 4 categories: high white-collar, low white-collar, pink-collar, and blue-collar. We conducted a linear regression model and analysis of covariance to investigate the effect of occupation on sleep duration.As a result of linear regression analysis, bedtime, overtime work and occupation were significantly associated with decreased sleep duration in males, and bedtime, age, and occupation were significantly associated with decreased sleep duration in females. Analysis of covariance revealed that both male and female blue-collar tended to sleep for significantly shorter durations than those in the other occupations.The results of the current study indicate that sleep duration is affected by occupation. When determining the cause of loss of sleep, medical personnel should consider their patient's lifestyles and how they have been affected by their occupation.
Topics: Adult; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Humans; Japan; Life Style; Male; Middle Aged; Occupational Health; Occupational Stress; Occupations; Sleep; Work Schedule Tolerance
Association between longest-held occupation and Social Security Disability Insurance benefits receipt.American Journal of Industrial Medicine Aug 2020The cost of the Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) program has increased over time though recent reports showed that disability incidence and prevalence rates...
The cost of the Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) program has increased over time though recent reports showed that disability incidence and prevalence rates have started declining. We explored whether occupation was one of the risk factors for the rising number of disabled workers who received DI benefits during 1992-2016.
We used a cohort of 16 196 Health and Retirement Survey respondents between the age of 51 and 64 years who were followed from their date of entry until they received DI benefits, died, reached full retirement age, or reached the end of the follow-up period (2016). We used the extended stratified Cox proportional hazard model. Because one-third of the respondents in our cohort did not report their longest-held occupation, we used a multiple-imputation method.
The hazard of receiving DI benefits was 51%, 78%, 81%, and 85% higher among workers with longest-held occupations in sales, mechanics and repair, protective services, and personal services, respectively than among workers with longest-held occupations in the reference managerial occupation. The hazard of receiving DI benefits was more than double among workers with longest-held occupations in the construction trade and extractors, transportation operation, machine operators, handlers, and food preparation than among workers with the longest-held occupation in the reference managerial occupation.
Improving the overall working conditions in these occupations would help reduce worker suffering and the number of applicants for DI benefits, thereby reducing the burden of workplace injury and illness on the DI program.
Topics: Disabled Persons; Female; Health Surveys; Humans; Industry; Insurance Benefits; Insurance, Disability; Male; Middle Aged; Occupations; Proportional Hazards Models; Retirement; Social Security; Time Factors; United States
Relation between occupation, gender dominance in the occupation and workplace and suicide in Sweden: a longitudinal study.BMJ Open Jun 2022To describe the association between occupations and suicide, and to explore the effect of gender dominance in the occupation and in the workplace on the risk of suicide.
To describe the association between occupations and suicide, and to explore the effect of gender dominance in the occupation and in the workplace on the risk of suicide.
Register-based cohort study.
3 318 050 workers in Sweden in 2005 and followed up until 2010. Exclusion criteria for the study were: missing information in the occupational codes, yearly income of <100 swedish krona, missing information of the employer, death or migration, and registered occupational code reported from more than 5 years ago.
Suicides occurring during 2006-2010 identified in the cause of death register by the International Classification of Diagnoses-10 codes X60-84 and Y10-34.
Occupations with increased suicide were life science and health professionals (OR: 2.8, 95% CI: 1.50 to 5.26) among women. In men, these were metal, machinery and related workers (OR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.09 to 2.05) and personal and protective service workers (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.14 to 2.22). In terms of gender dominance in the occupation, borderline associations with increased suicide risk were found for men in both male-dominated (OR: 1.32, 95% CI: 0.98 to 1.79) and female-dominated (OR: 1.37, 95% CI: 0.99 to 1.91) occupations. For women, borderline increased risk of suicide was found in female-dominated occupations (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 0.95 to 2.40). Finally, men showed a borderline increased risk of suicide in female-dominated workplaces (OR: 1.31, 95% CI: 0.94 to 1.81).
This study found that women in the 'life science and health professionals' group and men in the 'metal, machinery and related workers' as well as 'personal and protective service workers' groups have increased incidence of suicide also when adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, precariousness of the employment relationship, spells of unemployment, previous mental disorders and suicide attempts. Moreover, gender dominance at workplace and occupation seems to be associated with the risk of suicide among men. The results of our study are novel and are worth exploring in future qualitative studies.
Topics: Cohort Studies; Female; Humans; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Occupations; Sweden; Workplace
Prevalence of somatic and psychiatric morbidity across occupations in Switzerland and its correlation with suicide mortality: results from the Swiss National Cohort...BMC Psychiatry Jun 2020Suicide is a major and complex public health problem. In Switzerland, suicide accounts for about 1000 deaths yearly and is the fourth leading cause of mortality. The...
Prevalence of somatic and psychiatric morbidity across occupations in Switzerland and its correlation with suicide mortality: results from the Swiss National Cohort (1990-2014).
Suicide is a major and complex public health problem. In Switzerland, suicide accounts for about 1000 deaths yearly and is the fourth leading cause of mortality. The first nationwide Swiss study of suicides identified eight male and four female occupations with statistically significant excess of suicide compared to the general Swiss population. Working time, self-employer status, low socio-economic status and low skill level required for occupation were associated with increase in suicide risk. Presently, we aim to compare the distribution of suicide risk across occupations with the prevalence of somatic and psychiatric morbidity in Swiss working-aged adults. We hypothesized that some diseases would cluster in particular occupations, indicating potential work-relatedness of suicides found in these occupations.
We used the Swiss National Cohort (SNC) and included 10575 males and 2756 females deceased by suicide between 1990 and 2014. We estimated the prevalence of 16 categories of concomitant diseases in each occupation, using national mortality records, and assessed the homogeneity of diseases distribution across occupations. For diseases, which prevalence varied significantly across occupations, we analyzed the correlation with the distribution of suicide risk, estimated as the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of suicide.
Mental and behavioral disorders were the most commonly reported concomitant diseases in our population. In men, the prevalence of these disorders and more specifically, the prevalence of substance-related and addictive disorders, and of psychotic disorders varied significantly across occupations and was correlated with the SMR of suicide. The prevalence of malignant neoplasms and the prevalence of diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue also varied significantly across male occupations, while in women, such a variation was observed for neoplasms of uncertain or unknown behavior and diseases of the nervous system and sense organs, without being correlated with the SMR of suicide.
Some of the identified morbidities can be occupation-related and could negatively affect the working capacity and the employability, which in turn could be related to the suicide. Disentangling concomitant diseases according to their work-relatedness and relationship with the suicide risk is important for identifying occupation-related suicides, understanding their characteristics, and developing appropriated interventions for their prevention.
Topics: Adult; Cohort Studies; Female; Humans; Male; Mental Disorders; Middle Aged; Morbidity; Occupations; Prevalence; Suicide; Switzerland
Obesity and occupation in Thailand: using a Bayesian hierarchical model to obtain prevalence estimates from the National Health Examination Survey.BMC Public Health May 2021Like many developing countries, Thailand has experienced a rapid rise in obesity, accompanied by a rapid change in occupational structure. It is plausible that these two...
Like many developing countries, Thailand has experienced a rapid rise in obesity, accompanied by a rapid change in occupational structure. It is plausible that these two trends are related, with movement into sedentary occupations leading to increases in obesity. National health examination survey data contains information on obesity and socioeconomic conditions that can help untangle the relationship, but analysis is challenging because of small sample sizes.
This paper explores the relationship between occupation and obesity using data on 10,127 respondents aged 20-59 from the 2009 National Health Examination Survey. Obesity is measured using waist circumference. Modelling is carried out using an approach known as Multiple Regression with Post-Stratification (MRP). We use Bayesian hierarchical models to construct prevalence estimates disaggregated by age, sex, education, urban-rural residence, region, and occupation, and use census population weights to aggregate up. The Bayesian hierarchical model is designed to protect against overfitting and false discovery, which is particularly important in an exploratory study such as this one.
There is no clear relationship between the overall sedentary nature of occupations and obesity. Instead, obesity appears to vary occupation by occupation. For instance, women in professional occupations, and men who are agricultural or fishery workers, have relatively low rates of obesity.
Bayesian hierarchical models plus post-stratification offers new possibilities for using surveys to learn about complex health issues.
Topics: Adult; Bayes Theorem; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Obesity; Occupations; Prevalence; Thailand; Young Adult
Occupational Medicine (Oxford, England) May 2020Workers are exposed to physical, chemical and other hazards in the workplace, which may impact their respiratory health.
Workers are exposed to physical, chemical and other hazards in the workplace, which may impact their respiratory health.
To examine the healthy worker effect in the Canadian working population and to identify the association between occupation and respiratory health.
Data from four cycles of the Canadian Health Measures Survey were utilized. The current occupation of employed participants was classified into 10 broad categories based on National Occupation Category 2011 codes. Data relating to 15 400 subjects were analysed.
A significantly lower proportion of those in current employment than those not in current employment reported respiratory symptoms or diseases or had airway obstruction. Similarly, those currently employed reported better general health and had greater mean values for percent-predicted forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC (FEF25-75%) and FEV1/FVC ratio. Among males, females and older age groups, significant differences were observed for almost all the respiratory outcomes for those in current employment. Those in 'Occupations unique to primary industry' had a significantly greater likelihood of regular cough with sputum and ever asthma and had lower mean values of percent-predicted FEV1/FVC and FEF25-75% than those in 'Management occupations'. Those in 'Health occupations' had the highest proportion of current asthma.
Participants in current employment were healthier than those not in current employment providing further support for the healthy worker effect. Those in 'Occupations unique to primary industry' had an increased risk of adverse respiratory outcomes and reducing workplace exposures in these occupations has the potential to improve their respiratory health.
Topics: Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Airway Obstruction; Canada; Employment; Female; Healthy Worker Effect; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Occupations; Respiratory Function Tests; Respiratory Tract Diseases
[Maternal occupation and infant mortality in Japan: Insights from the Vital Statistics (Occupational and Industrial Aspects)].[Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi] Japanese... Oct 2021Objectives The proportion of Japanese women who maintain their employment during pregnancy and after delivery has been increasing. Previous studies from Western...
Objectives The proportion of Japanese women who maintain their employment during pregnancy and after delivery has been increasing. Previous studies from Western countries showed an association between the mother's occupation and birth outcomes; however, to the best of our knowledge, no epidemiological study has analyzed this association in Japan. Therefore, data from the national Vital Statistics: Occupational and Industrial Aspects were used to examine the association between the mother's occupation and (1) the risk of stillbirth at or after 12 weeks of gestation, and (2) the risk of infant death under 1 year of age after livebirth.Methods Data from the Vital Statistics: Occupational and Industrial Aspects (Live Birth Form, and Foetal Death Form) for fiscal years (FYs) 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015 and Vital Statistics data files (Death Form) from FYs 1995-96, 2000-01, 2005-06, 2010-11, and 2015-16 were analyzed. The study population consisted of (1) 5,355,881 infants who were born during the survey period, with (2) 5,290,808 live birth excluding still birth during the same period. The odds ratios (ORs) were estimated for (1) stillbirth (without stillbirth = livebirth) and (2) infant death (without infant death = alive at 1 year of age) by mother's occupation (managers/specialist/technical workers, clerical workers, sales workers, service workers, blue collar workers, and not employed) using logistic regression. Blue collar workers included workers in security, agriculture/forestry/fishing, manufacturing process, transport, and machine operation. The population attributable risk (PAR) for stillbirth attributed to mother's occupation among employed mothers was also calculated.Results There were 61,179 (1.1%) stillbirths in the study population and 12,789 (0.2%) infant deaths among 5,290,808 live birth. Compared to managers/specialist/technical workers, the adjusted ORs (95% confidence interval) for stillbirth among clerical workers, sales workers, service workers, blue collar workers and not employed women were 1.24 (1.20-1.29), 1.48 (1.41-1.56), 1.76 (1.69-1.83), 1.54 (1.46-1.61), and 0.95 (0.92-0.98), respectively. There was no association between the mother's occupation and infant deaths. The PAR values for stillbirth among mothers employed as clerical workers and service workers were 7.4% and 12.3%.Conclusion The risk of stillbirth differed according to the mother's occupation in our study. The OR and PAR of stillbirth were the highest for service workers. Mother's occupation was not associated with the risk of infant death; therefore, the mothers' occupation is likely to affect the children's condition only during pregnancy. Our study suggests the importance of understanding the causal linkage between pregnant women's occupation and birth outcomes.
Topics: Child; Female; Humans; Infant; Infant Mortality; Japan; Mothers; Occupations; Pregnancy; Stillbirth
Text mining occupations from the mental health electronic health record: a natural language processing approach using records from the Clinical Record Interactive Search...BMJ Open Mar 2021We set out to develop, evaluate and implement a novel application using natural language processing to text mine occupations from the free-text of psychiatric clinical...
Text mining occupations from the mental health electronic health record: a natural language processing approach using records from the Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) platform in south London, UK.
We set out to develop, evaluate and implement a novel application using natural language processing to text mine occupations from the free-text of psychiatric clinical notes.
Development and validation of a natural language processing application using General Architecture for Text Engineering software to extract occupations from de-identified clinical records.
SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS
Electronic health records from a large secondary mental healthcare provider in south London, accessed through the Clinical Record Interactive Search platform. The text mining application was run over the free-text fields in the electronic health records of 341 720 patients (all aged ≥16 years).
Precision and recall estimates of the application performance; occupation retrieval using the application compared with structured fields; most common patient occupations; and analysis of key sociodemographic and clinical indicators for occupation recording.
Using the structured fields alone, only 14% of patients had occupation recorded. By implementing the text mining application in addition to the structured fields, occupations were identified in 57% of patients. The application performed on gold-standard human-annotated clinical text at a precision level of 0.79 and recall level of 0.77. The most common patient occupations recorded were 'student' and 'unemployed'. Patients with more service contact were more likely to have an occupation recorded, as were patients of a male gender, older age and those living in areas of lower deprivation.
This is the first time a natural language processing application has been used to successfully derive patient-level occupations from the free-text of electronic mental health records, performing with good levels of precision and recall, and applied at scale. This may be used to inform clinical studies relating to the broader social determinants of health using electronic health records.
Topics: Adolescent; Adult; Data Mining; Electronic Health Records; Humans; London; Male; Mental Health; Natural Language Processing; Occupations; United Kingdom