The Laryngoscope Sep 2020Self-ratings seem to be the most effortless strategy for assessment of patients' chemical senses. Notably, although flavor perception strongly relies on olfaction, the...
Self-ratings seem to be the most effortless strategy for assessment of patients' chemical senses. Notably, although flavor perception strongly relies on olfaction, the relationship between self-reported flavor perception and orthonasal olfactory tests have hitherto not been considered. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between self-perceived olfactory function (SO), taste (ST), and flavor perception (SF) and smell test results in patients with olfactory dysfunction (OD).
We included 203 patients with quantitative OD. Group comparison, bivariate correlation, and ordinal logistic regression were employed to quantify the relationships between predictor variables (age, gender, reason for OD, and orthonasal olfaction-summed scores of threshold, discrimination, and identification [TDI]) and outcomes of SO and SF ("impaired," "average," or "good").
Group comparison revealed significant differences between SO and SF (P < .001). Stronger correlations were found between SO and TDI (r = 0.64), compared to SF and TDI (r = 0.27). No relevant correlation was found between ST and TDI (r = 0.10). Higher TDI was associated with odds of higher SO in univariate (odds ratio = 1.25) and multivariable analyses (adjusted odds ratio = 1.23), and both models showed good fit of data. Conversely, regression models on the associations between TDI and changes in SF did not meet the assumption of goodness of fit.
We found that higher orthonasal olfactory performance was associated with odds of higher SO in patients with OD, even after controlling for olfactory-relevant factors. To the contrary, similar models based on flavor perception failed to describe these relationships. This indicates for SF and ST to be less represented by the TDI compared to SO.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE
4 Laryngoscope, 130:2213-2219, 2020.
Topics: Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Discrimination, Psychological; Female; Flavoring Agents; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Nasal Cavity; Odds Ratio; Olfaction Disorders; Olfactory Perception; Smell; Taste; Taste Perception; Young Adult
Your Money or Your Sense of Smell? A Comparative Analysis of the Sensory and Psychological Value of Olfaction.Brain Sciences Feb 2022In public discourse, the sense of smell is typically characterized as the least important of the five senses. However, there are very little empirical data on this...
In public discourse, the sense of smell is typically characterized as the least important of the five senses. However, there are very little empirical data on this topic. Recently, much more attention has been brought to the sense of smell since olfactory dysfunction is a primary and often long-term symptom of COVID-19 infection. It was therefore of interest to expand research on the perceived value of olfaction in the current cultural condition. We developed a survey that directly compared the value of the senses of smell, hearing, and vision with each other and in relation to nine common items representing digital, material, personal, and physical commodities of varying social and emotional meaningfulness (phone, $10,000, favorite social media, online shopping, favorite streaming service, dream vacation, pet, hair, little left toe). In total, four hundred and seven female and male respondents comprising two life-stage groups (college students, general public adults) participated in our online survey study during winter-spring of 2021. The results reveal that the sense of smell was perceived as vastly less important than vision and hearing and much less valuable than various common commodities. We also found that life-stage and gender mediated our findings. For example, one-quarter of the college student respondents would give up their sense of smell in order to keep their phone and nearly half of all women would give up their sense of smell to keep their hair. Our data further illustrate that the senses of vision and hearing are valued relatively similarly. A number of questions arise from the present data and suggestions for ways in which our survey can be expanded and altered to address further research are discussed.
Acupuncture is associated with a positive effect on odour discrimination in patients with postinfectious smell loss-a controlled prospective study.European Archives of... Mar 2022Smell disorders are common in the general population and occur e.g., after infections, trauma or idiopathically Treatment strategies for smell loss range from surgery,... (Randomized Controlled Trial)
Randomized Controlled Trial
Smell disorders are common in the general population and occur e.g., after infections, trauma or idiopathically Treatment strategies for smell loss range from surgery, medication to olfactory training, depending on the pathology, but they are limited This study examined the effect of acupuncture on olfactory function.
Sixty patients with smell loss following infections of the upper respiratory tract were included in this investigation Half of the study group were randomly assigned to verum acupuncture and the other half to sham acupuncture Olfaction was measured by means of the "Sniffin' Sticks" test battery (odour threshold, discrimination and identification).
Compared to sham acupuncture, verum was associated with an improvement of smell function as measured by the TDI score (p = 0.039) The improvement was largely determined by improvement in odour discrimination, and was significantly better in patients with a shorter duration of the disorder.
The present results suggest that acupuncture is an effective supplementary treatment option for patients with olfactory loss.
Topics: Acupuncture Therapy; Anosmia; Humans; Odorants; Olfaction Disorders; Prospective Studies; Sensory Thresholds; Smell
American Journal of OtolaryngologyThe effects of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) exist on a spectrum. Clinical symptoms of smell and taste dysfunction are prominent features...
The effects of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) exist on a spectrum. Clinical symptoms of smell and taste dysfunction are prominent features of COVID-19. The objective of this study was to elucidate the factors associated with smell and taste dysfunction amongst hospitalized COVID-19 patients. A retrospective review of a multi-hospital health network's COVID-19 database between March and June 2020 was performed. Patients with self-reported smell or taste loss were included. Demographic information, patient comorbidities, and mortality data was obtained. There were 2892 patients included in this analysis and 117 reported smell or taste loss (4.0%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.4%-4.8%). The proportion of females with smell or taste loss was significantly higher than males (6.3% vs. 2.5%, P < 0.001), whereas no differences existed between ethnicity or smoking status. When compared with age of 30-40 years, the age group of 10-20 years were most likely to present with smell or taste dysfunction (odds ratio [OR] 6.59, 95% CI 1.32-26.12; P = 0.01). The majority of specific comorbidities were not associated with increased incidence of smell or taste dysfunction. Outpatient healthcare workers were more likely to present with smell or taste loss (OR 3.2, CI 1.8-5.47; P < 0.001). The mortality rate among COVID-19 patients with smell or taste dysfunction was significantly lower than those without (0% vs. 20.3%; P < 0.001). Smell or taste loss is more prevalent in women, younger age groups, and healthier individuals. It may be associated with lower mortality and a milder disease trajectory compared to the overall cohort.
Topics: Adolescent; Adult; Age Factors; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; COVID-19; Child; Female; Hospitalization; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Olfaction Disorders; Retrospective Studies; Sex Factors; Smell; Taste; Taste Disorders; Young Adult
Use of Indian smell identification test for evaluating olfaction in idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients in India.Neurology IndiaOlfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease (PD) has been recognized for a long time and a number of studies have been performed in various parts of the world, using...
Olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease (PD) has been recognized for a long time and a number of studies have been performed in various parts of the world, using culturally appropriate smell identification tests.
In this study, for the first time, olfactory function has been assessed in the Indian Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease (IPD) patients using an indigenously developed smell test.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Olfaction was assessed in 53 IPD patients and 50 healthy controls using SniffIn-sticks ® test and Indian Smell Identification test (INSIT). In both these tests, the subjects were asked to identify the smell from a set of choices and were scored out of 10 and 12 for INSIT and SniffIn-sticks ® test, respectively.
Both SniffIn-sticks ® test and INSIT showed significant impairment in olfaction in IPD patients (P < 0.001). There was no significant correlation of the scores of both tests with Hoehn and Yahr (H and Y) stage, duration of illness and Levodopa Equivalent Daily Dose (LEDD). The tests had a high correlation, r = 0.75 (P < 0.001) and the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves did not differ significantly. Using a cut off value of 4 (values ≤ 4 indicating disease), INSIT showed a sensitivity of 79.2% and specificity of 78%.
INSIT, being cheap, convenient and more acceptable in the Indian population, can be considered as a better alternative for SniffIn-sticks ® test in the evaluation of olfaction in Indian PD subjects.
Topics: Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Case-Control Studies; Female; Humans; India; Male; Middle Aged; Odorants; Olfaction Disorders; Parkinson Disease; ROC Curve; Sensory Thresholds; Smell
BMC Geriatrics May 2021Smell, taste and trigeminal disorders likely have a substantial impact on human daily life. However, data regarding the prevalence of these disorders in Norway are...
Smell, taste and trigeminal disorders likely have a substantial impact on human daily life. However, data regarding the prevalence of these disorders in Norway are scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of smell, taste, trigeminal disorders and associated factors in a 65-year-old population in Oslo, Norway.
A random sample of 223 individuals (123 men, 100 women) participated in the study. Medical history was obtained, and unstimulated whole saliva (UWS) and stimulated whole saliva (SWS) were collected to determine salivary secretion rates. Sniffin`n Sticks and Taste Strips (Burghart Messtechnik GmbH, Wedel, Germany) were used for quantitative testing of olfactory and gustatory function. In addition, the participants' self-reported perceptions of smell and taste, and burning mouth sensation were investigated.
The results showed that 34 % of the participants had reduced smell (28 % hyposmia and 6 % anosmia) and 28 % had reduced taste perception (21 % hypogeusia and 7 % ageusia). 13 % of the partcipants had a combination of smell and taste disorders. Dysgeusia was reported by 5 % and burning mouth sensation (syndrome) by 3 % of the participants. Hyposmia, hypogeusia and ageusia were significantly more prevalent among men. Significant associations were found between taste disorders and previous history of cerebral hemorrhage and heart attack, and between burning mouth sensation and gastrointestinal disorders. Disturbances in olfactory, gustatory and trigeminal function were significantly related to medication use. Ageusia and burning mouth sensation were significantly more prevalent among smokers. Except from higher prevalence of ageusia among participants with hyposalivation with respect to SWS, no significant associations were found between salivary secretion rate and chemosensory or trigeminal disorders in the present study.
The present study revealed that one-third of 65-year-old individuals had impaired smell and more than one-fourth had impaired taste function. The prevalence of dysgeusia and burning mouth sensation was very low. Reduced smell and taste perception were more common among men than women. Furthermore, some diseases and medications were associated with chemosensory and trigeminal disorders. Ageusia was associated with SWS hyposalivation.
Topics: Aged; Female; Germany; Humans; Male; Norway; Olfaction Disorders; Smell; Taste
Balkan Medical Journal Jan 2019This report produces a bibliographic study of psychophysical tests proposed clinical assessments of retronasal olfaction.
This report produces a bibliographic study of psychophysical tests proposed clinical assessments of retronasal olfaction.
We review how these tests can be utilized and discuss their methodological properties.
We undertook a systematic literature review investigating the retronasal olfaction test methods. PubMed, the free online MEDLINE database on biomedical sciences, was searched for the period from 1984 to 2015 using the following relevant key phrases: “retronasal olfaction”, “orthonasal olfaction”, “olfaction disorders”, and “olfaction test”. For each of the selected titles cited in this study, the full manuscript was read and analyzed by each of the three authors of this paper independently before collaborative discussion for summation and analytical reporting. Two reviewers independently read the abstracts and full texts and categorised them into one of three subgroups as follow, suitable, not-suitable, and unsure. Then they cross-checked the results, and a third reviewer decided assigned the group “unsure” to either the suitable group or the not-suitable group. Fifty eight studies revealed as suitable for review by two authors whereas 13 found not suitable for review. The total amount of 60 uncertain (unsure) or differently categorized articles were further examined by the third author which resulted in 41 approvals and 19 rejections. Hence 99 approved articles passed the next step. Exclusion criteria were reviews, case reports, animal studies, and the articles of which methodology was a lack of olfaction tests. By this way excluded 69 papers, and finally, 30 original human research articles were taken as the data.
The study found that the three most widely used and accepted retronasal olfaction test methods are the retronasal olfaction test, the candy smell test and odorant presentation containers. All of the three psychophysical retronasal olfaction tests were combined with orthonasal tests in clinical use to examine and understand the smell function of the patient completely. There were two limitations concerning testing: “the lack concentrations and doses of test materials” and “performing measurements within the supra-threshold zone”.
The appropriate test agents and optimal concentrations for the retronasal olfaction tests remain unclear and emerge as limitations of the retronasal olfaction test technique. The first step to overcoming these limitations will probably require identification of retronasal olfaction thresholds. Once these are determined, the concept of retronasal olfaction and its testing methods may be thoroughly reviewed.
Topics: Diagnostic Techniques, Neurological; Humans; Nasal Cavity; Olfaction Disorders; Olfactory Bulb; Smell
European Archives of... Sep 2021To study the impact of smell loss on quality of life in patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), and assess the importance of olfaction before and after the...
To study the impact of smell loss on quality of life in patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), and assess the importance of olfaction before and after the loss of smell. In addition, to assess the impact of smell loss on psychological well-being and distress, and to assess coping strategies used by COVID-19 patients with smell loss.
This study was a cross-sectional study. A total of 487 COVID-19 positive patients with anosmia were recruited. All participants filled in the validated Multi-Clinic Smell and Taste Questionnaire, and the validated General Well-being Schedule.
Negative impacts of smell loss, associated risks, interference with daily activities, and deterioration in well-being were common. The importance of the sense of smell was evaluated (In relation to other senses) as higher in the period after the loss than before the loss (p < 0.001). All aspects of health-related QOL are statistically significant (p < 0.001), with the exception of financial security and friendship, which are not statistically significant (p = 0.129, p = 0.334), respectively. Psychological well-being was negatively affected, and the use of both problem- and emotion-focused strategies was common.
COVID-19 Patients with loss of smell have significant reductions in health-related QOL. Their loss of smell directly affects daily activities related to the olfactory function. Therefore, priority should be given to diagnose and treat the loss of smell. Patients who have recently developed smell loss may be offered a combination of the problem- and emotion-focused strategies to cope with their condition.
Topics: Adaptation, Psychological; Anosmia; COVID-19; Cross-Sectional Studies; Humans; Olfaction Disorders; Quality of Life; SARS-CoV-2; Smell
PloS One 2022In older adults, kidney function declines with age. People with advanced kidney diseases may have poor olfaction. However, it is unclear whether poor olfaction is a... (Randomized Controlled Trial)
Randomized Controlled Trial
In older adults, kidney function declines with age. People with advanced kidney diseases may have poor olfaction. However, it is unclear whether poor olfaction is a marker for declining renal function or future risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We therefore investigated olfaction in relation to kidney function and risk of CKD.
These secondary data analyses were limited to participants of the year 3 clinical visit of the Health Aging and Body Composition Study. The analytic sample size varied between 1427 to 2531, depending on participant eligibility and data availability for each analysis. Olfaction was tested using the Brief Smell Identification Test (B-SIT), defined as anosmia (score≤6), hyposmia (7-8), moderate (9-10), and good function (10-11) at baseline. We estimated glomerular filter rate (eGFR) at baseline and seven years later using the CKD-EPI creatinine-cystatin C equation, and defined incident CKD as eGFR<60 ml>
At baseline, compared to participants with good olfaction, the multivariable-adjusted mean eGFR was 3.00 ml/min/1.73m2 lower (95% confidence interval (CI): -5.25, -0.75) for those with anosmia and 1.87 lower (95% CI: -3.94, 0.21) for those with hyposmia with a P for linear trend < 0.001. Those with anosmia at baseline was had a significantly lower eGFR seven years later (-5.31, 95% CI: -8.58, -2.04, P for trend = 0.002), but the association was attenuated after further accounting for baseline eGFR (-2.37, 95%CI: -4.91, 0.16, P for linear trend = 0.147). Olfactory function was not associated with incident CKD or CKD hospitalization.
In older adults > age 70 years, poor olfaction is associated with lower kidney function, but not future CKD risk. These associations should be further investigated in relatively younger population.
Topics: Aged; Female; Glomerular Filtration Rate; Humans; Independent Living; Male; Renal Insufficiency, Chronic; Smell
Prevalence and Characteristics of Altered Sense of Smell/Taste During Covid-19 first wave: A French Nationwide Cross-sectional Study.European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology,... Jan 2022Altered sense of smell and/or taste is a leading symptom of SARS-CoV-2 infection, but its prevalence at a population-level is unknown.
Altered sense of smell and/or taste is a leading symptom of SARS-CoV-2 infection, but its prevalence at a population-level is unknown.
From a questionnaire addressed to a representative subset of the French general adult (≥18-year) population over a 6-week period during the first French lockdown (April 7 to May 19 2020), self-reported new cases of altered sense of smell and/or taste were collected.
From 29,660 participants, new altered sense of smell and/or taste was 2.18% and 2.11% after direct standardization on the French population representing more than 1,110,000 subjects in France. Moreover, 0.5% of participants reported a positive SARS-CoV-2 test, among which 47.4% reported a newly altered sense of smell and/or taste. Male participants, younger ones together with those presenting with chronic condition had higher odds of reporting a newly altered sense of smell and/or taste.
This study provides an accurate estimate of new cases of altered sense of smell and/or taste in the general population at a nationwide level during the Covid-19 first wave.
Topics: Adult; COVID-19; Communicable Disease Control; Cross-Sectional Studies; Humans; Male; Olfaction Disorders; Prevalence; SARS-CoV-2; Smell; Taste; Taste Disorders