Cyclooxygenase-2 contributes to oxidopamine-mediated neuronal inflammation and injury via the prostaglandin E2 receptor EP2 subtype.Scientific Reports Aug 2017Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) triggers pro-inflammatory processes that can aggravate neuronal degeneration and functional impairments in many neurological conditions, mainly...
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) triggers pro-inflammatory processes that can aggravate neuronal degeneration and functional impairments in many neurological conditions, mainly via producing prostaglandin E2 (PGE) that activates four membrane receptors, EP1-EP4. However, which EP receptor is the culprit of COX-2/PGE-mediated neuronal inflammation and degeneration remains largely unclear and presumably depends on the insult types and responding components. Herein, we demonstrated that COX-2 was induced and showed nuclear translocation in two neuronal cell lines - mouse Neuro-2a and human SH-SY5Y - after treatment with neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), leading to the biosynthesis of PGE and upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β. Inhibiting COX-2 or microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 suppressed the 6-OHDA-triggered PGE production in these cells. Treatment with PGE or EP2 selective agonist butaprost, but not EP4 agonist CAY10598, increased cAMP response in both cell lines. PGE-initiated cAMP production in these cells was blocked by our recently developed novel selective EP2 antagonists - TG4-155 and TG6-10-1, but not by EP4 selective antagonist GW627368X. The 6-OHDA-promoted cytotoxicity was largely blocked by TG4-155, TG6-10-1 or COX-2 selective inhibitor celecoxib, but not by GW627368X. Our results suggest that PGE receptor EP2 is a key mediator of COX-2 activity-initiated cAMP signaling in Neuro-2a and SH-SY5Y cells following 6-OHDA treatment, and contributes to oxidopamine-mediated neurotoxicity.
Topics: Animals; Cell Line; Cyclic AMP; Cyclooxygenase 2; Cytokines; Humans; Inflammation; Inflammation Mediators; Mice; Neurons; Oxidopamine; Parkinson Disease; Receptors, Prostaglandin E, EP2 Subtype; Signal Transduction; Up-Regulation
pH-Responsive Redox Nanoparticles Protect SH-SY5Y Cells at Lowered pH in a Cellular Model of Parkinson's Disease.Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) Jan 2021The damage to SH-SY5Y cells by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is an established cellular model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Redox nanoparticles are a promising tool for...
The damage to SH-SY5Y cells by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is an established cellular model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Redox nanoparticles are a promising tool for therapy, including neurodegenerative diseases. As pH of the brain tissue at sites affected by PD is lowered down to 6.5, we studied the effect of pH-responsive redox nanoparticles (poly(ethylene glycol)--poly[4-(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl)aminomethylstyrene]), which change their structure in a pH-dependent manner and become active below pH 7 (NRNPs ), on the viability of SH-SY5Y cells treated with 6-OHDA at pH 6.5 and 7.4. Pretreatment of the cells with NRNPs (15-75 μM) prior to the 6-OHDA treatment increased their survival in a concentration-dependent manner at pH 6.5, but not at pH 7.4. Among several parameters studied (ATP and GSH content, the level of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial potential, mitochondrial mass), only the mitochondrial mass was dose-dependently protected by NRNPs at pH 6.5, but not at pH 7.4. These results indicate that the action of NRNPs on mitochondria underlies their protective effect in this cellular model of PD. These results may have potential importance for future applications of NRNPs in preclinical and perhaps clinical studies.
Topics: Cell Line, Tumor; Cell Survival; Delayed-Action Preparations; Humans; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration; Models, Neurological; Nanoparticles; Oxidopamine; Parkinson Disease
Imaging of cerebral tryptophan metabolism using 7-[F]FTrp-PET in a unilateral Parkinsonian rat model.NeuroImage Feb 2022Degradation products of the essential amino acid tryptophan (Trp) are important signaling molecules in the mammalian brain. Trp is metabolized either through the...
Degradation products of the essential amino acid tryptophan (Trp) are important signaling molecules in the mammalian brain. Trp is metabolized either through the kynurenine pathway or enters serotonin and melatonin syntheses. The aim of the present work was to examine the potential of the novel PET tracer 7-[F]fluorotryptophan ([F]FTrp) to visualize all three pathways in a unilateral 6-OHDA rat model. [F]FDOPA-PET scans were performed in nine 6-OHDA-injected and six sham-operated rats to assess unilateral dopamine depletion severity four weeks after lesion placement. Afterwards, 7-[F]FTrp-PET scans were conducted at different timepoints up to seven months after 6-OHDA injection. In addition, two 6-OHDA-injected rats were examined for neuroinflammation using [F]DAA1106-PET. 7-[F]FTrp-PET showed significantly increased tracer uptake at the 6-OHDA injection site which was negatively correlated to time after lesion placement. Accumulation of [F]DAA1106 at the injection site was increased as well, suggesting that 7-[F]FTrp uptake in this region may reflect kynurenine pathway activity associated with inflammation. Bilaterally in the dorsal hippocampus, 7-[F]FTrp uptake was significantly decreased and was inversely correlated to dopamine depletion severity, indicating that it reflects reduced serotonin synthesis. Finally, 7-[F]FTrp uptake in the pineal gland was significantly increased in relation with dopamine depletion severity, providing evidence that melatonin synthesis is increased in the 6-OHDA rat model. We conclude that 7-[F]FTrp is able to detect alterations in both serotonin/melatonin and kynurenine metabolic pathways, and can be applied to visualize pathologic changes related to neurodegenerative processes.
Topics: Animals; Disease Models, Animal; Fluorine Radioisotopes; Hippocampus; Kynurenine; Male; Melatonin; Oxidopamine; Parkinson Disease; Pineal Gland; Positron-Emission Tomography; Radiopharmaceuticals; Rats; Rats, Long-Evans; Serotonin; Tryptophan
The Preventive Effect of Cardiac Sympathetic Denervation Induced by 6-OHDA on Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury: The Changes of lncRNA/circRNAs-miRNA-mRNA Network...Oxidative Medicine and Cellular... 2021In this study, we investigated whether chemical 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) stimuli caused cardiac sympathetic denervation (SD), and we analyzed gene expression profiles...
The Preventive Effect of Cardiac Sympathetic Denervation Induced by 6-OHDA on Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury: The Changes of lncRNA/circRNAs-miRNA-mRNA Network of the Upper Thoracic Spinal Cord in Rats.
In this study, we investigated whether chemical 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) stimuli caused cardiac sympathetic denervation (SD), and we analyzed gene expression profiles to determine the changes in the lncRNA/circRNAs-miRNA-mRNA network in the affected spinal cord segments to identify putative target genes and molecular pathways in rats with myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MIRI). Our results showed that cardiac sympathetic denervation induced by 6-OHDA alleviated MIRI. Compared with the ischemia reperfusion (IR, MIRI model) group, there were 148 upregulated and 51 downregulated mRNAs, 165 upregulated and 168 downregulated lncRNAs, 70 upregulated and 52 downregulated circRNAs, and 12 upregulated and 11 downregulated miRNAs in the upper thoracic spinal cord of the SD-IR group. Furthermore, we found that the differential genes related to cellular components were mainly enriched in extracellular and cortical cytoskeleton, and molecular functions were mainly enriched in chemokine activity. Pathway analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes were mainly related to the interaction of cytokines and cytokine receptors, sodium ion reabsorption, cysteine and methionine metabolism, mucoglycan biosynthesis, cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, and MAPK signaling pathway. In conclusion, the lncRNA/circRNAs-miRNA-mRNA networks in the upper thoracic spinal cord play an important role in the preventive effect of cardiac sympathetic denervation induced by 6-OHDA on MIRI, which offers new insights into the pathogenesis of MIRI and provides new targets for MIRI.
Topics: Animals; Chemokines; Coronary Vessels; Down-Regulation; Gene Ontology; Gene Regulatory Networks; Male; MicroRNAs; Myocardial Reperfusion Injury; Oxidopamine; Protein Interaction Maps; RNA, Circular; RNA, Long Noncoding; RNA, Messenger; Rats; Rats, Sprague-Dawley; Signal Transduction; Spinal Cord; Sympathectomy; Up-Regulation
Neuroprotection with the Cannabidiol Quinone Derivative VCE-004.8 (EHP-101) against 6-Hydroxydopamine in Cell and Murine Models of Parkinson's Disease.Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) May 2021The 3-hydroxyquinone derivative of the non-psychotrophic phytocannabinoid cannabigerol, so-called VCE-003.2, and some other derivatives have been recently investigated...
The 3-hydroxyquinone derivative of the non-psychotrophic phytocannabinoid cannabigerol, so-called VCE-003.2, and some other derivatives have been recently investigated for neuroprotective properties in experimental models of Parkinson's disease (PD) in mice. The pharmacological effects in those models were related to the activity on the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) and possibly other pathways. In the present study, we investigated VCE-004.8 (formulated as EHP-101 for oral administration), the 3-hydroxyquinone derivative of cannabidiol (CBD), with agonist activity at the cannabinoid receptor type-2 (CB) receptor in addition to its activity at the PPAR-γ receptor. Studies were conducted in both in vivo (lesioned-mice) and in vitro (SH-SY5Y cells) models using the classic parkinsonian neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Our data confirmed that the treatment with VCE-004.8 partially reduced the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons measured in the substantia nigra of 6-OHDA-lesioned mice, in parallel with an almost complete reversal of the astroglial (GFAP) and microglial (CD68) reactivity occurring in this structure. Such neuroprotective effects attenuated the motor deficiencies shown by 6-OHDA-lesioned mice in the cylinder rearing test, but not in the pole test. Next, we explored the mechanism involved in the beneficial effect of VCE-004.8 in vivo, by analyzing cell survival in cultured SH-SY5Y cells exposed to 6-OHDA. We found an important cytoprotective effect of VCE-004.8 at a concentration of 10 µM, which was completely reversed by the addition of antagonists, T0070907 and SR144528, aimed at blocking PPAR-γ and CB receptors, respectively. The treatment with T0070907 alone only caused a partial reversal, whereas SR144528 alone had no effect, indicating a major contribution of PPAR-γ receptors in the cytoprotective effect of VCE-004.8 at 10 µM. In summary, our data confirmed the neuroprotective potential of VCE-004.8 in 6-OHDA-lesioned mice, and in vitro studies confirmed a greater relevance for PPAR-γ receptors rather than CB receptors in these effects.
Topics: Administration, Oral; Animals; Benzamides; Camphanes; Cannabidiol; Cannabinoids; Cell Line, Tumor; Cell Survival; Disease Models, Animal; Immunohistochemistry; Male; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Neurons; Neuroprotection; Oxidopamine; PPAR gamma; Parkinson Disease; Pyrazoles; Pyridines; Quinones; Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase
β‑Lapachone ameliorates L‑DOPA‑induced dyskinesia in a 6‑OHDA‑induced mouse model of Parkinson's disease.Molecular Medicine Reports Mar 2021The dopamine precursor 3,4‑dihydroxyphenyl‑ l‑alanine (L‑DOPA) is the most widely used symptomatic treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD); however, its prolonged...
The dopamine precursor 3,4‑dihydroxyphenyl‑ l‑alanine (L‑DOPA) is the most widely used symptomatic treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD); however, its prolonged use is associated with L‑DOPA‑induced dyskinesia in more than half of patients after 10 years of treatment. The present study investigated whether co‑treatment with β‑Lapachone, a natural compound, and L‑DOPA has protective effects in a 6‑hydroxydopamine (6‑OHDA)‑induced mouse model of PD. Unilateral 6‑OHDA‑lesioned mice were treated with vehicle or β‑Lapachone (10 mg/kg/day) and L‑DOPA for 11 days. Abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) were scored on days 5 and 10. β‑Lapachone (10 mg/kg) co‑treatment with L‑DOPA decreased the AIMs score on both days 5 and 10. β‑Lapachone was demonstrated to have a beneficial effect on the axial and limb AIMs scores on day 10. There was no significant suppression in dopamine D1 receptor‑related and ERK1/2 signaling in the DA‑denervated striatum by β‑Lapachone‑cotreatment with L‑DOPA. Notably, β‑Lapachone‑cotreatment with L‑DOPA increased phosphorylation at the Ser9 site of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK‑3β), indicating suppression of GSK‑3β activity in both the unlesioned and 6‑OHDA‑lesioned striata. In addition, astrocyte activation was markedly suppressed by β‑Lapachone‑cotreatment with L‑DOPA in the striatum and substantia nigra of the unilateral 6‑OHDA model. These findings suggest that β‑Lapachone cotreatment with L‑DOPA therapy may have therapeutic potential for the suppression or management of the development of L‑DOPA‑induced dyskinesia in patients with PD.
Topics: Animals; Dyskinesias; Levodopa; Male; Mice; Naphthoquinones; Oxidopamine; Parkinson Disease, Secondary
Alleviation of Methamphetamine Sensitization by Partially Lesioning Dopaminergic Terminals with 6-Hydroxydopamine in Nucleus Accumbens.Cell TransplantationAmphetamine-type stimulants have become important and popular abused drugs worldwide. Methamphetamine (Meth) sensitization, characterized by a progressive increase in...
Amphetamine-type stimulants have become important and popular abused drugs worldwide. Methamphetamine (Meth) sensitization, characterized by a progressive increase in behavioral responses after repeated administration, has been reported in rodents and patients. This behavioral effect has been used as a laboratory model to study drug addiction and schizophrenia. The mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway plays a significant role in the development of Meth behavioral sensitization. Previous studies have reported that the ablation of nucleus accumbens (NAc) by electrolytic or thermal lesioning attenuates addictive behavior to opioids in animals. However, these studies were only conducted in opioid addictive rodents. Furthermore, these ablation procedures also damaged the non-dopaminergic neurons and fibers passing through the NAc. The purpose of this study was to examine the therapeutic effect of NAc lesioning by a selective dopaminergic toxin in Meth-sensitized animals. Adult mice received repeated administration of Meth for 7 days. Open-field locomotor activity and stereotype behavior were significantly increased after Meth treatment, suggesting behavior sensitization. A partial lesion of dopaminergic terminals was made through stereotaxic administration of dopaminergic toxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to the NAc in the Meth -sensitized mice. Meth behavioral sensitization was significantly antagonized after the lesioning. Brain tissue was collected for qRT-PCR analysis. Repeated administration of Meth increased the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), BDNF, and Shati, a marker for Meth sensitization, in the NAc. Treatment with 6-OHDA significantly antagonized the upregulation of TH and Shati. Taken together, these data suggest that local administration of 6-OHDA mitigated Meth sensitization in chronic Meth-treated animals. Our data support a new surgical treatment strategy for Meth abuse.
Topics: Animals; Central Nervous System Stimulants; Dopamine; Humans; Male; Methamphetamine; Mice; Nucleus Accumbens; Oxidopamine
Grafts Derived from an α-Synuclein Triplication Patient Mediate Functional Recovery but Develop Disease-Associated Pathology in the 6-OHDA Model of Parkinson's Disease.Journal of Parkinson's Disease 2021Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have been proposed as an alternative source for cell replacement therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD) and they provide the...
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have been proposed as an alternative source for cell replacement therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD) and they provide the option of using the patient's own cells. A few studies have investigated transplantation of patient-derived dopaminergic (DA) neurons in preclinical models; however, little is known about the long-term integrity and function of grafts derived from patients with PD.
To assess the viability and function of DA neuron grafts derived from a patient hiPSC line with an α-synuclein gene triplication (AST18), using a clinical grade human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line (RC17) as a reference control.
Cells were differentiated into ventral mesencephalic (VM)-patterned DA progenitors using an established GMP protocol. The progenitors were then either terminally differentiated to mature DA neurons in vitro or transplanted into 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioned rats and their survival, maturation, function, and propensity to develop α-synuclein related pathology, were assessed in vivo.
Both cell lines generated functional neurons with DA properties in vitro. AST18-derived VM progenitor cells survived transplantation and matured into neuron-rich grafts similar to the RC17 cells. After 24 weeks, both cell lines produced DA-rich grafts that mediated full functional recovery; however, pathological changes were only observed in grafts derived from the α-synuclein triplication patient line.
This data shows proof-of-principle for survival and functional recovery with familial PD patient-derived cells in the 6-OHDA model of PD. However, signs of slowly developing pathology warrants further investigation before use of autologous grafts in patients.
Topics: Animals; Dopaminergic Neurons; Humans; Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells; Oxidopamine; Parkinson Disease; Rats; Synucleinopathies; alpha-Synuclein
The voiding efficiency in rat models with dopaminergic brain lesions induced through unilateral and bilateral intrastriatal injections.PloS One 2020Bladder dysfunction is a common phenomenon in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. A research attempt was made to analyze the voiding efficiency (VE) and bladder functions...
Bladder dysfunction is a common phenomenon in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. A research attempt was made to analyze the voiding efficiency (VE) and bladder functions in rats with PD induced by unilateral or bilateral injections of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the medial forebrain bundle. PD rats were divided into unilateral- and bilateral-injected groups and subjected to rotation and beam walking tests. Further, the experimental rats underwent cystometric measurements for analyses of bladder dysfunction and VE. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to analyze the dopaminergic neuron depletion on the target area. Outcomes of the rotation and beam walking tests revealed the extent of parkinsonism in the experimental rats. Urodynamic observations denoted that rats with unilateral PD exhibited a significantly decreased VE (from 68.3±3.5% to 32.7±5.8%), while rats with bilateral PD displayed a much-reduced and substantially lower level of VE of 18.3±5.1% compared to the control value and to that of rats with unilateral PD. Rats with bilateral PD showed more-extensive behavioral deficits and urodynamic changes than did rats with unilateral PD. These significant changes in motor, behavioral, bladder function and VE were due to an extensive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra region on both sides of the brain. The obtained results were substantiated with appropriate immunohistochemical results.
Topics: Animals; Behavior, Animal; Disease Models, Animal; Dopaminergic Neurons; Electromyography; Male; Oxidopamine; Parkinson Disease; Rats; Rats, Sprague-Dawley; Urinary Bladder; Urodynamics
Nitroxide Radical-Containing Redox Nanoparticles Protect Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells against 6-Hydroxydopamine Toxicity.Oxidative Medicine and Cellular... 2020Parkinson's disease (PD) patients can benefit from antioxidant supplementation, and new efficient antioxidants are needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the...
Parkinson's disease (PD) patients can benefit from antioxidant supplementation, and new efficient antioxidants are needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of selected nitroxide-containing redox nanoparticles (NRNPs) in a cellular model of PD. Antioxidant properties of NRNPs were studied in cell-free systems by protection of dihydrorhodamine 123 against oxidation by 3-morpholino-sydnonimine and protection of fluorescein against bleaching by 2,2-azobis(2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride and sodium hypochlorite. Model blood-brain barrier penetration was studied using hCMEC/D3 cells. Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, exposed to 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), were used as an model of PD. Cells were preexposed to NRNPs or free nitroxides (TEMPO or 4-amino-TEMPO) for 2 h and treated with 6-OHDA for 1 h and 24 h. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was estimated with dihydroethidine 123 and Fluorimetric Mitochondrial Superoxide Activity Assay Kit. Glutathione level (GSH) was measured with -phtalaldehyde, ATP by luminometry, changes in mitochondrial membrane potential with JC-1, and mitochondrial mass with 10-Nonyl-Acridine Orange. NRNP1, TEMPO, and 4-amino-TEMPO (25-150 M) protected SH-SY5Y cells from 6-OHDA-induced viability loss; the protection was much higher for NRNP1 than for free nitroxides. NRNP1 were better antioxidants and permeated better the model BBB than free nitroxides. Exposure to 6-OHDA decreased the GSH level after 1 h and increased it considerably after 24 h (apparently a compensatory overresponse); NRNPs and free nitroxides prevented this increase. NRNP1 and free nitroxides prevented the decrease in ATP level after 1 h and increased it after 24 h. 6-OHDA increased the intracellular ROS level and mitochondrial superoxide level. Studied antioxidants mostly decreased ROS and superoxide levels. 6-OHDA decreased the mitochondrial potential and mitochondrial mass; both effects were prevented by NRNP1 and nitroxides. These results suggest that the mitochondria are the main site of 6-OHDA-induced cellular damage and demonstrate a protective effect of NRNP1 in a cellular model of PD.
Topics: Cell Line, Tumor; Humans; Nanoparticles; Neuroblastoma; Oxidation-Reduction; Oxidopamine; Signal Transduction