Differential Effects of Optimism and Pessimism on Adolescents' Subjective Well-Being: Mediating Roles of Reappraisal and Acceptance.International Journal of Environmental... Jun 2022Prior research has found the differential strength of optimism and pessimism in predicting physical health. However, whether similar findings would be obtained in...
Prior research has found the differential strength of optimism and pessimism in predicting physical health. However, whether similar findings would be obtained in predicting subjective well-being and the possible underlying mechanisms are still unclear. This study examined the relative strength of optimism and pessimism in predicting adolescent life satisfaction and depression, and further explored the possible mediating mechanisms from the perspective of emotion regulation. A sample of 2672 adolescents ( = 13.54 years, = 1.04; 55.60% boys) completed a survey assessing optimism and pessimism, the habitual use of reappraisal and acceptance strategies, life satisfaction, and depression. The results from dominance analysis revealed that the presence of optimism was more powerful than the absence of pessimism in predicting adolescent life satisfaction, while the absence of pessimism was more powerful than the presence of optimism in predicting adolescent depression. Moreover, mediation models showed that reappraisal and acceptance mediated both the link between optimism and life satisfaction and the link between pessimism and depression. These findings suggest possible avenues for intervening in different aspects of adolescent subjective well-being.
Topics: Adolescent; Female; Humans; Male; Optimism; Pessimism; Surveys and Questionnaires
British Journal of Health Psychology Nov 2020Studies have demonstrated the importance of optimism in predicting perceived general health. However, the handful of studies focusing on cardiovascular biomarkers show...
Studies have demonstrated the importance of optimism in predicting perceived general health. However, the handful of studies focusing on cardiovascular biomarkers show inconsistent effects. Additionally, no study examined whether spousal levels of optimism and pessimism affect an individual's biological markers of cardiovascular health. Thus, our objectives were to examine whether partners' optimism and pessimism affect individual biological markers, differentiating between between-dyad associations and within-dyad predictive processes.
Three waves of the Health and Retirement Study collected in 2006, 2010, and 2014 were used to test actor and partner effects of optimism and pessimism on C-reactive protein (CRP) and high-density lipoprotein. Multilevel longitudinal actor-partner models were used to examine the contribution of a partner's optimism and pessimism to each biomarker, adjusting for respondent's age, sex, depression, body mass index, daily activity levels, and a summary score of respondent's doctor-diagnosed chronic conditions.
Partners' pessimism and optimism levels were moderately associated. Results for within-person effects were all non-significant, both within and across waves. Associations at the between-person level were also non-significant, with the exception of a positive association between husbands' pessimism and their own CRP, and husbands' optimism and their wives' CRP.
Results suggest that optimism and pessimism may not play a pertinent role in within variability of biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases and have a minor role in predicting to between-person variability of biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases.
Topics: Aged; Attitude to Health; Biomarkers; C-Reactive Protein; Female; Humans; Male; Optimism; Pessimism; Prospective Studies; Sexual Partners; Spouses
A multimethod approach examining the relative contributions of optimism and pessimism to cardiovascular disease risk markers.Journal of Behavioral Medicine Oct 2020Although dispositional optimism and pessimism are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), their relative independence and unique contributions to CVD risk are...
Although dispositional optimism and pessimism are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), their relative independence and unique contributions to CVD risk are unclear. This study addressed these issues by using multiple indicators of optimism and pessimism and linking them to objective risk factors for CVD. A diverse sample of adults (N = 300) completed baseline assessments (including global reports of optimism and pessimism), a 2-day/1-night EMA protocol with ambulatory blood pressure (BP) at 45-min intervals, and had inflammatory markers and carotid intima media imaging collected. EMA reports of momentary positive and negative expectations were averaged to form intraindividual (person) means of optimism and pessimism, respectively. Optimism and pessimism were only modestly correlated between- and within-assessment methods. Higher pessimism, regardless of assessment method, predicted both lower odds of whether BP dipping occurred and a smaller degree of dipping, but was unrelated to other biomarkers. Optimism was not uniquely predictive of CVD risk factors. Pessimism thus appears to exhibit stronger relative contribution to risk indicators of CVD than optimism.
Topics: Adult; Biomarkers; Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory; Cardiovascular Diseases; Humans; Optimism; Pessimism
How Do Failed Entrepreneurs Cope with Their Prior Failure When They Seek Subsequent Re-Entry into Serial Entrepreneurship? Failed Entrepreneurs' Optimism and Defensive...International Journal of Environmental... Jun 2021Entrepreneurial failure is prevalent, and particularly when the COVID-19 crisis exacerbates the economic recession, it becomes even more prevalent. Entrepreneurs...
How Do Failed Entrepreneurs Cope with Their Prior Failure When They Seek Subsequent Re-Entry into Serial Entrepreneurship? Failed Entrepreneurs' Optimism and Defensive Pessimism and Coping Humor as a Moderator.
Entrepreneurial failure is prevalent, and particularly when the COVID-19 crisis exacerbates the economic recession, it becomes even more prevalent. Entrepreneurs experience an intensive emotional crisis when their ventures fail, and this deleterious impact, including stress and emotional pain, may prevent failed entrepreneurs (FEs) from restarting; hence, how they cope with failure has received increased attention in recent years. However, most of the extant literature focuses on success rather than failure, and there is very limited literature on how FEs cope with the psychological and emotional crisis caused by failure. This study focuses on FEs' use of optimism and defensive pessimism as coping strategies within the mental simulation theory with respect to their re-entry intentions. It examines the impact of career ambition and public self-awareness on optimism, of the fear of failure (FoF) and self-doubt, on defensive pessimism, and of coping humor as a moderator. We used structural equation modeling to analyze the data of 277 Korean FEs who have actual entrepreneurial failure experiences and actively prepared for their re-entry. The results show that career ambitions and public self-awareness have an impact on optimism, and FoF and self-doubt lead to defensive pessimism. Coping humor also has a moderating effect on the path from defensive pessimism to the intention to re-enter. This study advances the literature on coping mechanisms that FEs employ to manage the negative impact of failure and prepare for their subsequent re-entry. Its theoretical model, based on the mental simulation theory combined with social comparison theory, provides a possible integrative framework that includes both the pervasively held view of entrepreneurs' optimism related to overconfidence and their defensive pessimism related to their vulnerability due to their ventures' failure. Thus, this study makes theoretical contributions to the literature of entrepreneurial failure, as well as practical implications for policymakers and educators who assist FEs in successfully coping with entrepreneurial failure and re-entry.
Topics: Adaptation, Psychological; COVID-19; Entrepreneurship; Humans; Pessimism; SARS-CoV-2
Pessimism is associated with greater all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, but optimism is not protective.Scientific Reports Jul 2020Scores on an optimistic-pessimistic personality scale have been associated with mortality, but optimism and pessimism scores are separable traits and it is unclear which...
Scores on an optimistic-pessimistic personality scale have been associated with mortality, but optimism and pessimism scores are separable traits and it is unclear which has effects on health or longevity. The Life Orientation Test (LOT), containing items for optimism and pessimism, was included in a twin study on health of Australians aged over 50 in 1993-1995. After a mean of 20 years, participants were matched against death information from the Australian National Death Index. 1,068 out of 2,978 participants with useable LOT scores had died. Survival analysis tested for associations between separate optimism and pessimism scores and mortality from any cause, and from cancers, cardiovascular diseases or other known causes. Age-adjusted scores on the pessimism scale were associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality (Hazard Ratios per 1 standard deviation unit, 95% confidence intervals and p-values 1.134, 1.065-1.207, 8.85 × 10 and 1.196, 1.045-1.368, 0.0093, respectively) but not with cancer deaths. Optimism scores, which were only weakly correlated with pessimism scores (age-adjusted rank correlation = - 0.176), did not show significant associations with overall or cause-specific mortality. Reverse causation (disease causing pessimism) is unlikely because in that case both cardiovascular diseases and cancers would be expected to lead to pessimism.
Topics: Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Body Mass Index; Cardiovascular Diseases; Female; Humans; Kaplan-Meier Estimate; Male; Middle Aged; Optimism; Pessimism; Proportional Hazards Models
Structural Relationship between Korean Adolescent's Sports Participation, Optimism, Pessimism, Self-Regulation, and Coronavirus-Related Stress in the Pandemic Situation.International Journal of Environmental... Oct 2021This study aimed to examine the relationships between sports participation, optimism/pessimism, self-regulation, and coronavirus-related stress in Korean adolescents...
This study aimed to examine the relationships between sports participation, optimism/pessimism, self-regulation, and coronavirus-related stress in Korean adolescents during the pandemic situation. Specifically, we attempted to offer valuable information that could help to alleviate coronavirus-related stress in adolescents by promoting participation in sports and the development of optimism and self-regulation. To achieve this aim, we conducted an online survey of 836 Korean adolescents in the pilot and main studies. Confirmatory factor, frequency, path, reliability, descriptive statistical, and multimedia analyses were performed. Our findings indicated several differences for each variable according to demographic characteristics. Sports participation exerted a positive effect on optimism ( < 0.001) and self-regulation ( < 0.01) and negative effects on coronavirus-related stress ( < 0.05) and pessimism ( < 0.001). In addition, optimism exerted a positive effect on self-regulation ( < 0.001) and a negative effect on coronavirus-related stress ( < 0.001), while pessimism exerted a negative effect on self-regulation ( < 0.01) and a positive effect on coronavirus-related stress ( < 0.001). Further analysis indicated that self-regulation had a negative effect on coronavirus-related stress ( < 0.05). These findings highlight the need for youth educational institutions to encourage adolescents to participate in sports and for organizing bodies to suggest various policies and provide education that can assist them in properly coping with and overcoming coronavirus-related stress by strengthening their optimistic attitude and self-regulation ability.
Topics: Adolescent; Humans; Optimism; Pandemics; Pessimism; Reproducibility of Results; Republic of Korea; Self-Control
Pessimism, diet, and the ability to improve dietary habits: a three-year follow-up study among middle-aged and older Finnish men and women.Nutrition Journal Oct 2018Dietary habits have a great influence on physiological health. Even though this fact is generally recognized, people do not eat as healthily as they know they should....
Dietary habits have a great influence on physiological health. Even though this fact is generally recognized, people do not eat as healthily as they know they should. The factors that support a healthy diet, on the other hand, are not well known. It is supposed that there is a link between personal traits and dietary habits. Personal traits may also partially explain why some people manage to make healthy dietary changes while some fail to do so or are not able to try to make changes even when they desire to do so. There is some information suggesting that dispositional optimism plays a role in succeeding in improving dietary habits. The aim of this study was to determine the role of optimism and pessimism in the process of dietary changes.
Dispositional optimism and pessimism were determined using the revised Life Orientation Test in 2815 individuals (aged 52-76 years) participating in the GOAL study in the region of Lahti, Finland. The dietary habits of the study subjects were analysed. After 3 years, the subjects' dietary habits and their possible improvements were registered. The associations between dispositional optimism and pessimism, dietary habits at baseline, and possible changes in dietary habits during the follow-up were studied with logistic regression. We also studied if the dietary habits or certain lifestyle factors (e.g. physical exercising and smoking) at baseline predicted success in improving the diet.
Pessimism seemed to correlate clearly negatively with the healthiness of the dietary habits at baseline - i.e. the higher the level of pessimism, the unhealthier the diet. Optimism also showed a correlation with dietary habits at baseline, although to a lesser extent. Those who managed to improve their dietary habits during follow-up or regarded their dietary habits as healthy enough even without a change were less pessimistic at baseline than those who failed in their attempts to improve their diet or did not even try, even when they recognized the need for a change.
Pessimistic people are more likely to eat an unhealthy diet than others. Pessimism reduces independently the possibilities to improve dietary patterns.
Topics: Aged; Diet; Feeding Behavior; Female; Finland; Follow-Up Studies; Health Behavior; Humans; Life Style; Male; Middle Aged; Nutrition Surveys; Personality; Pessimism
Optimism, pessimism, cynical hostility, and biomarkers of metabolic function in the Women's Health Initiative.Journal of Diabetes Jun 2018Psychological attitudes reflecting expectations about the future (optimism, pessimism) and people (cynical hostility) independently predict incident cardiovascular...
Psychological attitudes reflecting expectations about the future (optimism, pessimism) and people (cynical hostility) independently predict incident cardiovascular disease and possibly diabetes, but underlying biologic pathways are incompletely understood. Herein we examined the cross-sectional relationship between optimism, pessimism, and cynicism and biomarkers of metabolic function in the Women's Health Initiative.
Among 3443 postmenopausal women, biomarkers of metabolic function (fasting insulin [FINS] and glucose) were measured at baseline and used to calculate insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) and pancreatic β-cell activity (homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function [HOMA-B]). Psychological attitudes were assessed by the Life Orientation Test, Revised (full scale, and optimism and pessimism subscales) and the Cook-Medley cynicism subscale. Multivariable linear regression modeled the association of psychological attitudes with biomarker levels, adjusting for sociodemographics, health conditions, and health behaviors. Because obesity promotes insulin resistance and obese individuals tend to report higher levels of pessimism and cynical hostility, an interaction with body mass index (BMI) was explored.
In fully adjusted models, only pessimism remained independently associated with higher FINS and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Scoring 1 point higher on the pessimism subscale was associated with a 1.2% higher FINS, whereas scoring 1 SD higher was associated with a 2.7% higher FINS (P = 0.03); results were similar for HOMA-IR. An interaction term with BMI was not significant.
In multivariable models, higher dispositional pessimism was associated with worse metabolic function; these findings were not modified by obesity status. Results extend prior work by linking pessimism to an objective biomarker of insulin resistance in elderly women.
Topics: Aged; Biomarkers; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Health Behavior; Hostility; Humans; Insulin Resistance; Metabolic Diseases; Middle Aged; Optimism; Pessimism; Prognosis; Risk Factors; United States; Women's Health
Psychometric characteristics and factorial structures of the Defensive Pessimism Questionnaire-Spanish Version (DPQ-SV).PloS One 2020The aim of this study was to validate the Spanish version of the Defensive Pessimism Questionnaire. A sample of undergraduate students (N = 539) was measured on...
The aim of this study was to validate the Spanish version of the Defensive Pessimism Questionnaire. A sample of undergraduate students (N = 539) was measured on defensive pessimism using the Defensive Pessimism Questionnaire (DPQ), optimism and pessimism using the Life Orientation Test (LOT), positive and negative affect using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and anxiety using the trait subscale of the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory. A Spanish version of the DPQ (DPQ-SV) is presented. Exploratory and Robust Confirmatory Factor Analysis had a bi-dimensional structure (Reflectivity and Negative Expectation). Omega coefficient showed a high internal consistency and the temporal stability was high in each dimension. Both DPQ-SV subscales (Negative Expectation and Reflectivity) showed adequate convergence with LOT-optimism and LOT-pessimism. Reflectivity showed adequate criterion validity with trait-anxiety and negative affect, but inadequate criterion validity with positive affect. Negative Expectation showed excellent criterion validity with trait-anxiety and negative affect and good criterion validity with positive affect. Finally, mediation analysis showed that Negative Expectation had a significant indirect mediating effect between trait-anxiety and negative affect. Reflectivity had a significant indirect mediating effect between trait-anxiety and negative and positive affect. Analysis of the psychometric properties of the DPQ-SV subscale scores showed that it is a two factor adequate measurement tool for its use in this type of samples.
Topics: Adolescent; Adult; Anxiety; Anxiety Disorders; Female; Humans; Male; Personality Inventory; Pessimism; Psychometrics; Students; Surveys and Questionnaires
Unrealistic pessimism and obsessive-compulsive symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic: Two longitudinal studies.The British Journal of Clinical... Sep 2022Unrealistic pessimism (UP) is an aspect of overestimation of threat (OET) that has been associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder/symptoms (OCD/OCS). During the...
Unrealistic pessimism (UP) is an aspect of overestimation of threat (OET) that has been associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder/symptoms (OCD/OCS). During the COVID-19 pandemic, UP may have played an important role in the course of OCD. To investigate the relationship, we conducted two longitudinal studies assuming that higher UP predicts an increase in OCS.
In Study 1, we investigated UP in the general population (N = 1,184) at the start of the pandemic asking about overall vulnerability to infection with SARS-CoV-2 and UP regarding infection and outcome of severe illness. Further, OCS status (OCS+/-) was assessed at the start of the pandemic and 3 months later. In Study 2, we investigated UP in individuals with OCD (N = 268) regarding the likelihood of getting infected, recovering, or dying from an infection with SARS-CoV-2 at the start of the pandemic and re-assessed OCS 3 months later.
In Study 1, UP was higher in the OCS+ compared to the OCS- group, and estimates of a higher overall vulnerability for an infection predicted a decrease in OCS over time. UP regarding severe illness predicted an increase in symptoms over time. In Study 2, UP was found for a recovery and death after an infection with SARS-CoV-2, but not for infection itself.
Exaggeration of one's personal vulnerability rather than OET per se seems pivotal in OCD, with UP being associated with OCD/OCS+ as well as a more negative course of symptomatology over the pandemic in a nonclinical sample.
Unrealistic optimism, a bias common in healthy individuals, is thought to be a coping mechanism promoting well-being in the face of danger or uncertainty. The current study extends findings that its inversion, unrealistic pessimism, may play an important role in obsessive-compulsive disorder and may also be involved in the development of the disorder. This study highlights the importance that prevention programs during a pandemic should include targeting unrealistic pessimism.
Topics: COVID-19; Humans; Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder; Pandemics; Pessimism; SARS-CoV-2