Animal Models in Pharmacology: A Brief History Awarding the Nobel Prizes for Physiology or Medicine.Pharmacology 2021The Nobel Prize of Physiology or Medicine (NPPM) has recognized the work of 222 scientists from different nationalities, from 1901 until 2020. From the total, 186 award... (Review)
The Nobel Prize of Physiology or Medicine (NPPM) has recognized the work of 222 scientists from different nationalities, from 1901 until 2020. From the total, 186 award researchers used animal models in their projects, and 21 were attributed to scientists and projects directly related to Pharmacology. In the most recent years, genetics is a dominant scientific area, while at the beginning of the 20th century, most of the studies were more related to anatomy, cytology, and physiology.
Mammalian models were used in 144 NPPM projects, being rodents the most used group of species. Moreover, 92 researchers included domestic species in their work. The criteria used to choose the species, the number of animals used and the experimental protocol is always debatable and dependent on the scientific area of the study; however, the 3R's principle can be applied to most scientific fields. Independently of the species, the animal model can be classified in different types and criteria, depending on their ecology, genetics, and mode of action. Key-Messages: The use of animal models in NPPM awarded projects, namely in Pharmacology, illustrates their importance, need and benefit to improve scientific knowledge and create solutions. In the future, with the contribute of technology, it might be possible to refine the use of animal models in pharmacology studies.
Topics: Animals; History, 20th Century; History, 21st Century; Humans; Mammals; Models, Animal; Nobel Prize; Pharmacology; Research; Research Design; Rodentia
European association for clinical pharmacology and therapeutics young clinical pharmacologists working group: a cornerstone for the brighter future of clinical...European Journal of Clinical... Apr 2022The European Association for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics (EACPT) is a leading society in Europe serving the European and global Clinical Pharmacology and...
European association for clinical pharmacology and therapeutics young clinical pharmacologists working group: a cornerstone for the brighter future of clinical pharmacology.
The European Association for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics (EACPT) is a leading society in Europe serving the European and global Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics community. Its specific aims include promotion of the utilisation and divulgation of the utility of clinical pharmacology services in health care delivery. EACPT currently has four active working groups (WGs): Education, Regulatory affairs, Clinical research and Young Clinical Pharmacologists (YCP WG). EACPT YCP WG was established in 2015 with the idea of improving education, research, training and networking/mobility opportunities for YCPs across Europe and globe. The main objective of the present manuscript is to provide detailed information on general characteristics, structure, chronogram, objectives, accomplishments and current/future focus areas of the EACPT YCP WG. Consequently, we tend to notably enhance EACPT YCP WG's visibility, increase the number of its members and mobility/networking options and to expand areas of activity even more. Moreover, by this we can also make clinical pharmacology more attractive to early career fellows and colleagues and empower its position alongside other medical specialties.
Topics: Delivery of Health Care; Europe; Humans; Pharmacology; Pharmacology, Clinical
Utilizing Artificial Intelligence to Manage COVID-19 Scientific Evidence Torrent with Risklick AI: A Critical Tool for Pharmacology and Therapy Development.Pharmacology 2021The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has led to one of the most critical and boundless waves of publications in the history of modern science. The necessity to find and pursue...
The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has led to one of the most critical and boundless waves of publications in the history of modern science. The necessity to find and pursue relevant information and quantify its quality is broadly acknowledged. Modern information retrieval techniques combined with artificial intelligence (AI) appear as one of the key strategies for COVID-19 living evidence management. Nevertheless, most AI projects that retrieve COVID-19 literature still require manual tasks.
In this context, we pre-sent a novel, automated search platform, called Risklick AI, which aims to automatically gather COVID-19 scientific evidence and enables scientists, policy makers, and healthcare professionals to find the most relevant information tailored to their question of interest in real time.
Here, we compare the capacity of Risklick AI to find COVID-19-related clinical trials and scientific publications in comparison with clinicaltrials.gov and PubMed in the field of pharmacology and clinical intervention.
The results demonstrate that Risklick AI is able to find COVID-19 references more effectively, both in terms of precision and recall, compared to the baseline platforms. Hence, Risklick AI could become a useful alternative assistant to scientists fighting the COVID-19 pandemic.
Topics: Artificial Intelligence; COVID-19; Clinical Trials as Topic; Data Interpretation, Statistical; Drug Development; Evidence-Based Medicine; Humans; Pharmacology; Registries
Pharmacology Research & Perspectives Dec 2021Pharmacology education currently lacks a research-based consensus on which core concepts all graduates should know and understand, as well as a valid and reliable means...
Pharmacology education currently lacks a research-based consensus on which core concepts all graduates should know and understand, as well as a valid and reliable means to assess core conceptual learning. The Core Concepts in Pharmacology Expert Group (CC-PEG) from Australia and New Zealand recently identified a set of core concepts of pharmacology education as a first step toward developing a concept inventory-a valid and reliable tool to assess learner attainment of concepts. In the current study, CC-PEG used established methodologies to define each concept and then unpack its key components. Expert working groups of three to seven educators were formed to unpack concepts within specific conceptual groupings: what the body does to the drug (pharmacokinetics); what the drug does to the body (pharmacodynamics); and system integration and modification of drug-response. First, a one-sentence definition was developed for each core concept. Next, sub-concepts were established for each core concept. These twenty core concepts, along with their respective definitions and sub-concepts, can provide pharmacology educators with a resource to guide the development of new curricula and the evaluation of existing curricula. The unpacking and articulation of these core concepts will also inform the development of a pharmacology concept inventory. We anticipate that these resources will advance further collaboration across the international pharmacology education community to improve curricula, teaching, assessment, and learning.
Topics: Australia; Cooperative Behavior; Curriculum; Humans; Learning; New Zealand; Pharmacology; Teaching
Pharmacology Research & Perspectives Oct 2021Pharmacology graduates require an understanding of both in vitro and in vivo drug responses but there has been a decline in animal use in pharmacology education over the...
Pharmacology graduates require an understanding of both in vitro and in vivo drug responses but there has been a decline in animal use in pharmacology education over the last 30 years. To address this, we present the novel invertebrate model, Lumbriculus variegatus, for in vivo testing of drugs in a teaching environment. We have developed two novel behavioral assays: the stereotypical movement assay, which measures the effect of drugs on the ability of L. variegatus to perform stereotypical movements following tactile stimulation, and the free locomotion assay, which measures drug effects on unstimulated movement. We report the effects of compounds with diverse pharmacodynamic properties on L. variegatus using these assays. The ryanodine receptor antagonist, dantrolene, altered the unstimulated movement of L. variegatus at 5 μM, whereas stimulated movement was inhibited at ≥25 μM. Lidocaine, a voltage-gated sodium channel blocker, and quinine, a nonselective sodium and potassium channel blocker, reduced both stimulated and unstimulated L. variegatus movement at ≥0.5 mM. Inhibitory effects of quinine persisted for up to 24 h after drug removal, whereas lidocaine effects were reduced 10 min after drug removal. Herein, we provide proof-of-concept utilization of L. variegatus as an organism for use in in vivo pharmacology education but without regulatory constraints or the need for specialized equipment and training.
Topics: Animals; Annelida; Behavior, Animal; Calcium Channel Blockers; Dantrolene; Lidocaine; Models, Animal; Movement; Muscle Relaxants, Central; Pharmacology; Quinine; Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Blockers
Pharmacology Research & Perspectives Aug 2021Pharmacology education currently lacks an agreed knowledge curriculum. Evidence from physics and biology education indicates that core concepts are useful and effective...
Pharmacology education currently lacks an agreed knowledge curriculum. Evidence from physics and biology education indicates that core concepts are useful and effective structures around which such a curriculum can be designed to facilitate student learning. Building on previous work, we developed a novel, criterion-based method to identify the core concepts of pharmacology education. Five novel criteria were developed, based on a literature search, to separate core concepts in pharmacology from topics and facts. Core concepts were agreed to be big ideas, enduring, difficult, applicable across contexts, and useful to solve problems. An exploratory survey of 33 pharmacology educators from Australia and New Zealand produced 109 terms, which were reduced to a working list of 26 concepts during an online workshop. Next, an expert group of 12 educators refined the working list to 19 concepts, by applying the five criteria and consolidating synonyms, and added three additional concepts that emerged during discussions. A confirmatory survey of a larger group resulted in 17 core concepts of pharmacology education. This list may be useful for educators to evaluate existing curricula, design new curricula, and to inform the development of a concept inventory to test attainment of the core concepts in pharmacology.
Topics: Australia; Curriculum; Delphi Technique; Faculty; Humans; New Zealand; Pharmacology; Surveys and Questionnaires
Alternative to animal experimentation in pharmacology teaching: Development and validation of an equivalent digital learning tool.Pharmacology Research & Perspectives Feb 2022Regarding animal experiments in pharmacology teaching, ethical considerations led us to examine an alternative approach to the use of living animals. This study aimed to... (Comparative Study)
Comparative Study Randomized Controlled Trial
Regarding animal experiments in pharmacology teaching, ethical considerations led us to examine an alternative approach to the use of living animals. This study aimed to assess whether digital tools could replace live animal experiments in terms of motivation and knowledge acquisition. The study was carried out with students enrolled in the 5th year of the industry/research stream at the Faculty of Pharmacy of the University of Limoges. The participants were randomly assigned to groups of traditional or digital teaching methods, with the common theme of the class being the effect of a diuretic agent (furosemide) in rats. The scenario and learning objectives were identical for the two groups. Before the class and after randomization, the acceptance of the digital educational material was assessed with a scale, which predicts the acceptability of users according to individual dimensions and social representations, followed by the assessment of the motivation by a situational motivation scale (SIMS) for both groups. After the class, the students' motivation was assessed by a questionnaire based on Deci and Ryan's self-determination theory. In the end, the participants were evaluated for homogeneity, based on general knowledge of renal pharmacology, and for knowledge acquisition concerning specific knowledge related to this teaching session. This study revealed a good acceptance of the digital tool and a good motivation toward the digital method among all the students. It found the two teaching methods (digital and traditional) to be equivalent in terms of motivation and knowledge acquisition. In our study, digital pedagogical tools as an alternative to live animals did not affect students' motivation and knowledge acquisition.
Topics: Animal Testing Alternatives; Animals; Computer-Assisted Instruction; Diuretics; Education, Pharmacy; Educational Measurement; Educational Technology; France; Furosemide; Humans; Motivation; Pharmacology; Rats; Students, Pharmacy; Surveys and Questionnaires
β-arrestin2 recruitment at the β2 adrenergic receptor: A luciferase complementation assay adapted for undergraduate training in pharmacology.Pharmacology Research & Perspectives Feb 2021In the context of pharmacology teaching, hands-on activities constitute an essential complement to theoretical lectures. Frequently, these activities consist in exposing...
In the context of pharmacology teaching, hands-on activities constitute an essential complement to theoretical lectures. Frequently, these activities consist in exposing fresh animal tissues or even living animals to selected drugs and qualitatively or quantitatively evaluating functional responses. However, technological advancements in pharmacological research and the growing concerns for animal experimentation support the need for innovative and flexible in vitro assays adapted for teaching purposes. We herein report the implementation of a luciferase complementation assay (LCA) enabling to dynamically monitor β-arrestin2 recruitment at the β adrenergic receptor in the framework of pharmacological training at the faculty of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences. The assay allowed students to quantitatively characterize the competitive antagonism of propranolol, and to calculate pEC , pK , and pA values after a guided data analysis session. Moreover, the newly implemented workshop delivered highly reproducible results and were generally appreciated by students. As such, we report that the luciferase complementation-based assay proved to be a straightforward, robust, and cost-effective alternative to experiments performed on animal tissues, constituting a useful and flexible tool to enhance and update current hands-on training in the context of pharmacological teaching.
Topics: Adrenergic beta-Agonists; Adrenergic beta-Antagonists; Biological Assay; Education; HEK293 Cells; Humans; Isoproterenol; Luciferases, Firefly; Pharmacology; Propranolol; Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2; Surveys and Questionnaires; beta-Arrestin 2
Advances in Physiology Education Sep 2020To reduce medication errors, medical educators must nurture the early development of rational and safe prescribing. Teaching pharmacology is challenging because it...
To reduce medication errors, medical educators must nurture the early development of rational and safe prescribing. Teaching pharmacology is challenging because it requires knowledge integration across disciplines, including physiology and pathology. Traditionally, pharmacology has been taught using lecture-based learning, which conveys consistent information but may promote passive learning. Virtual patients (VPs) have been used more recently to promote active learning, mainly in clinical years. Conversely, the use of VPs in preclinical disciplines, including pharmacology, is not well described. The objective was to investigate the potential benefits of combining traditional teaching with VPs in preclinical pharmacology teaching. All medical students (2 cohorts), enrolled in the Systematic Pharmacology I course (lectures: 3 h weekly; tutorial: 1 h weekly), were invited to participate in this naturalistic, prospective study. During tutorials, students were taught using case-based discussion and single-best-answer questions (control) in four tutorials and VPs (experimental) in the remaining six tutorials. The impact of VPs was assessed by ) performance in written examinations, and ) student satisfaction/perceptions, using a validated, modified questionnaire. Examination performance related to teaching in VP-based tutorials was significantly improved, compared with traditional tutorials. The level of difficulty of control and experimental assessment items was comparable, as determined by the Angoff method. Facilitation of learning was higher in VP tutorials, while a no-harm effect was noted on knowledge acquisition/maintenance, authenticity of learning, and disadvantages of learning. VPs may be effectively integrated in preclinical pharmacology teaching, with benefits on pharmacological knowledge and facilitation of learning.
Topics: Humans; Pharmacology; Problem-Based Learning; Prospective Studies; Students, Medical; Surveys and Questionnaires; Teaching
INSPIRE: A European training network to foster research and training in cardiovascular safety pharmacology.Journal of Pharmacological and... Sep 2020Safety pharmacology is an essential part of drug development aiming to identify, evaluate and investigate undesirable pharmacodynamic properties of a drug primarily...
Safety pharmacology is an essential part of drug development aiming to identify, evaluate and investigate undesirable pharmacodynamic properties of a drug primarily prior to clinical trials. In particular, cardiovascular adverse drug reactions (ADR) have halted many drug development programs. Safety pharmacology has successfully implemented a screening strategy to detect cardiovascular liabilities, but there is room for further refinement. In this setting, we present the INSPIRE project, a European Training Network in safety pharmacology for Early Stage Researchers (ESRs), funded by the European Commission's H2020-MSCA-ITN programme. INSPIRE has recruited 15 ESR fellows that will conduct an individual PhD-research project for a period of 36 months. INSPIRE aims to be complementary to ongoing research initiatives. With this as a goal, an inventory of collaborative research initiatives in safety pharmacology was created and the ESR projects have been designed to be complementary to this roadmap. Overall, INSPIRE aims to improve cardiovascular safety evaluation, either by investigating technological innovations or by adding mechanistic insight in emerging safety concerns, as observed in the field of cardio-oncology. Finally, in addition to its hands-on research pillar, INSPIRE will organize a number of summer schools and workshops that will be open to the wider community as well. In summary, INSPIRE aims to foster both research and training in safety pharmacology and hopes to inspire the future generation of safety scientists.
Topics: Cardiovascular System; Drug Development; Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions; Humans; Pharmacology; Safety