The Persian Version of the COVID-19 Phobia Scale (Persian-C19P-S) and the Differences in COVID-19-Related Phobic Reactions in Patients with Anxiety Disorders.International Journal of Mental Health... 2022Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic outbreak increasing several psychological distress, such as anxiety and phobia, and may affect patients with anxiety...
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic outbreak increasing several psychological distress, such as anxiety and phobia, and may affect patients with anxiety disorders. A scale has been recently designed to assess COVID-19-related phobic reactions named the COVID-19 Phobia Scale (C19P-S). The present study aimed to evaluate factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Persian version of the C19P-S (Persian-C19P-S) in patients with anxiety disorders and to compare COVID-19-related phobia among these patients. Three hundred patients with anxiety disorders completed the Persian-C19P-S and other scales assessing anxiety traits (e.g., the Short Health Anxiety Inventory (SHAI), the Health Concerns Questionnaire-54 (HCQ-54), and the Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4)) and COVID-19-related distress (e.g., the COVID Stress Scales (CSS) and the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19)). The results showed that the Persian-C19P-S replicated the four-factor structure of the original C19P-S. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability coefficients evidenced the reliability of the scale. The validity of the scale (convergent and discriminant validity) was confirmed. Patients who had generalized anxiety and panic disorders showed higher phobic reactions related to COVID-19 than those with social anxiety disorder and specific phobia. This study indicates that the Persian version of the C19P-S is a valid scale to be used in Iranian patients with anxiety disorders to evaluate COVID-19-related phobia. Moreover, COVID-19-related phobic reactions are higher in some specific types of anxiety disorders.
The Effect of Personality Traits on Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Outcomes in Student Pharmacists with Rat Phobia: A Randomized Clinical Trial.Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences Jan 2021Little is known about which personality traits determine the effectiveness of various types of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) on animal phobia. The objective of the... (Randomized Controlled Trial)
Randomized Controlled Trial
Little is known about which personality traits determine the effectiveness of various types of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) on animal phobia. The objective of the present study was to investigate a possible association between personality traits and the outcome of single- and multi-session CBT.
The present randomized clinical trial was conducted from November 2018 to May 2019 in Shiraz, Iran. Forty female students with rat phobia, who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) criteria, were systematically allocated into a single- and a multi-session therapy group (odd numbers one-session treatment, even numbers multi-session treatment). In both groups, the students were gradually exposed to rats as part of the treatment. Psychological measures (state-anxiety, rat phobia, and disgust questionnaires) were used to compare pre- and post-intervention outcomes. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to assess which personality traits influenced the intervention outcome. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (version 20.0) and P values<0.05 were considered statistically significant.
Rat phobia was positively and significantly affected by conscientiousness (P=0.001) and agreeableness (P=0.003). Of these personality traits, only a higher degree of conscientiousness resulted in a further reduction of state anxiety after the intervention (P=0.005). There were no significant differences between the pre- and post-intervention outcomes.
The outcome of single- and multi-session rat phobia therapies was associated with specific personality traits of the participants, namely conscientiousness and agreeableness. Both intervention methods had an equal effect on reducing rat phobia.
Topics: Animals; Cognitive Behavioral Therapy; Fear; Female; Humans; Iran; Personality Inventory; Phobic Disorders; Propensity Score; Psychotherapy, Group; Rats; Students, Pharmacy; Surveys and Questionnaires; Young Adult
Family Aggregation and Risk Factors in Phobic Disorders over Three-Generations in a Nation-Wide Study.PloS One 2016This nation-wide register-based study investigated how often phobic disorders (PHO) and co-morbid disorders occur in affected families compared to control families....
This nation-wide register-based study investigated how often phobic disorders (PHO) and co-morbid disorders occur in affected families compared to control families. Furthermore, the study addressed the impact of sex, year of birth, and degree of urbanization in terms of risk factors.
A total of N = 746 child and adolescent psychiatric participants born between 1969 and 1986 and registered in the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register (DPCRR) with a diagnosis of a mental disorder before the age of 18, and developed PHO at some point during their life-time until a maximum age of 40 years were included. In addition, N = 2229 controls without any diagnosis of mental disorders before age 18 and that were matched for age, sex, and residential region were included. Diagnoses of mental disorders were also obtained from the first- degree relatives as a part of the Danish Three Generation Study (3GS). A family load component was obtained by using various mixed regression models.
PHO occurred significantly more often in case than in control families, in particular, in mothers and siblings. Substance use disorders (SUD), Depressive disorders (DEP), anxiety disorders (ANX) and personality disorders (PERS) in the family were significantly associated with specific phobia in the case-probands. After controlling for various mental disorders comorbid to PHO it was found that some of the family transmission could be caused by various other mental disorders in family members rather than the PHO itself. Female sex and more recent year of birth were further risk factors while region of residence was not related to the manifestation of PHO. Case-relatives did not develop PHO earlier than control relatives. After adjusting for various additional explanatory variables, the family load explained only 0.0013% of the variance in the manifestation of PHO in the case-probands.
These findings, based on a very large and representative dataset, provide evidence for the family aggregation and further risk factors in PHO. In contrast to anxiety disorders and other major mental disorders the family load of PHO in this nation-wide study was rather low.
Topics: Adolescent; Adult; Case-Control Studies; Child; Child, Preschool; Denmark; Family; Family Characteristics; Female; Genetic Predisposition to Disease; Humans; Infant; Infant, Newborn; Male; Phobic Disorders; Risk Factors; Young Adult
Lifetime comorbidities between phobic disorders and major depression in Japan: results from the World Mental Health Japan 2002-2004 Survey.Depression and Anxiety 2009Although often considered of minor significance in themselves, evidence exists that early-onset phobic disorders might be predictors of later more serious disorders,...
Although often considered of minor significance in themselves, evidence exists that early-onset phobic disorders might be predictors of later more serious disorders, such as major depressive disorder (MDD). The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of phobic disorders with the onset of MDD in the community in Japan.
Data from the World Mental Health Japan 2002-2004 Survey were analyzed. A total of 2,436 community residents aged 20 and older were interviewed using the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0 (response rate, 58.4%). A Cox proportional hazard model was used to predict the onset of MDD as a function of prior history of DSM-IV specific phobia, agoraphobia, or social phobia, adjusting for gender, birth-cohort, other anxiety disorders, education, and marital status at survey.
Social phobia was strongly associated with the subsequent onset of MDD (hazard ratio [HR]=4.1 [95% CI: 2.0-8.7]) after adjusting for sex, birth cohort, and the number of other anxiety disorders. The association between agoraphobia or specific phobia and MDD was not statistically significant after adjusting for these variables.
Social phobia is a powerful predictor of the subsequent first onset of MDD in Japan. Although this finding argues against a simple neurobiological model and in favor of a model in which the cultural meanings of phobia play a part in promoting MDD, an elucidation of causal pathways will require more fine-grained comparative research.
Topics: Adult; Age of Onset; Aged; Agoraphobia; Comorbidity; Cross-Cultural Comparison; Cross-Sectional Studies; Depressive Disorder, Major; Female; Health Surveys; Humans; Japan; Male; Middle Aged; Panic Disorder; Phobic Disorders; Risk Assessment; World Health Organization; Young Adult
The association between fear extinction, the ability to accomplish exposure and exposure therapy outcome in specific phobia.Scientific Reports Mar 2020Great interest exists in maximizing exposure therapy efficacy in anxiety disorders. At the same time, reduced frequency and shortened duration of exposure sessions are...
Great interest exists in maximizing exposure therapy efficacy in anxiety disorders. At the same time, reduced frequency and shortened duration of exposure sessions are required to meet the specific regularities in routine care settings. Extinction has emerged as the key mechanism of exposure treatment in anxiety disorders. Examining exposure treatment processes from the perspective of extinction learning might provide novel insights into variability in exposure treatment duration and outcome. The present study sought to examine the functional link between fear extinction, the ability to accomplish exposure in a predetermined time and exposure therapy outcome in specific phobia. Treatment-seeking individuals (N = 53) with spider phobia underwent a context-dependent fear conditioning paradigm prior to a standardized exposure. Spider-phobic participants who were able to complete exposure within the pre-determined time (i.e., completers) showed a more pronounced short- and long-term exposure therapy benefit. In the fear conditioning task, a more pronounced decline in CS-US contingency ratings during extinction (retrieval) was found in completers relative to non-completers. The failure to further extinguish US expectancy to the CSs in non-completers might offer a potential mechanistic explanation why non-completers have difficulties to accomplish all exposure steps in a fixed time and show less pronounced treatment gains. Our findings bear specific implications for the implementation of exposure treatment to routine care settings.
Topics: Adult; Animals; Anxiety Disorders; Brain; Conditioning, Classical; Fear; Female; Humans; Implosive Therapy; Male; Phobic Disorders; Spiders; Young Adult
Sakarya University students' fat phobia levels and attitudes towards obese individuals and their correlation with healthy lifestyle behaviours: Knowledge, attitude and...JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan... Sep 2018To evaluate fat phobia levels and attitudes towards obese person among university students to determine their correlation with healthy lifestyle behaviour.
Sakarya University students' fat phobia levels and attitudes towards obese individuals and their correlation with healthy lifestyle behaviours: Knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) study.
To evaluate fat phobia levels and attitudes towards obese person among university students to determine their correlation with healthy lifestyle behaviour.
The knowledge, attitude and practice study was conducted at Sakarya University, Turkey, between May and December 2015, and comprised students of either gender. Data was collected by using the socio-demographic form, fat phobia scale, attitudes toward obese persons scale, and health-promoting lifestyle profile II scale. SPSS 16 was used for data analysis.
Of the 2100 students, 1056(50.3%) were male and 2067(98.4%) were in the 17-26 years age group. The mean fat phobia scale score was 3.72±0.63and mean attitudes toward obese persons scale score was 59.95±0.63. Relationship between fat phobia scale, attitudes toward obese persons scale, and health-promoting lifestyle profile II scale scores was significant (p<0.05).
Fatphobia moderately existed among the students.
Topics: Adult; Attitude of Health Personnel; Female; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Health Promotion; Healthy Lifestyle; Humans; Male; Needs Assessment; Obesity; Phobic Disorders; Students; Turkey; Universities
Validation of the diagnoses of panic disorder and phobic disorders in the US National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent (NCS-A) supplement.International Journal of Methods in... Jun 2011Validity of the adolescent version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) Version 3.0, a fully-structured research...
Validity of the adolescent version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) Version 3.0, a fully-structured research diagnostic interview designed to be used by trained lay interviewers, is assessed in comparison to independent clinical diagnoses based on the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-age Children (K-SADS). This assessment is carried out in the clinical reappraisal sub-sample (n = 347) of the US National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent (NCS-A) supplement, a large (n = 10,148) community epidemiological survey of the prevalence and correlates of adolescent mental disorders in the United States. The diagnoses considered are panic disorder and phobic disorders (social phobia, specific phobia, agoraphobia). CIDI diagnoses are found to have good concordance with K-SADS diagnoses [area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) = 0.81-0.94], although the CIDI diagnoses are consistency somewhat higher than the K-SADS diagnoses. Data are also presented on criterion-level concordance in an effort to pinpoint CIDI question series that might be improved in future modifications of the instrument. Finally, data are presented on the factor structure of the fears associated with social phobia, the only disorder in this series where substantial controversy exists about disorder subtypes.
Topics: Adolescent; Comorbidity; Female; Health Surveys; Humans; Interview, Psychological; Male; Panic Disorder; Phobic Disorders; Predictive Value of Tests; Prevalence; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; Reproducibility of Results; Sensitivity and Specificity; United States
Brain dynamics of visual attention during anticipation and encoding of threat- and safe-cues in spider-phobic individuals.Social Cognitive and Affective... Sep 2015This study systematically investigated the sensitivity of the phobic attention system by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs) in spider-phobic and non-phobic...
This study systematically investigated the sensitivity of the phobic attention system by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs) in spider-phobic and non-phobic volunteers in a context where spider and neutral pictures were presented (phobic threat condition) and in contexts where no phobic but unpleasant and neutral or only neutral pictures were displayed (phobia-irrelevant conditions). In a between-group study, participants were assigned to phobia-irrelevant conditions either before or after the exposure to spider pictures (pre-exposure vs post-exposure participants). Additionally, each picture was preceded by a fixation cross presented in one of three different colors that were informative about the category of an upcoming picture. In the phobic threat condition, spider-phobic participants showed a larger P1 than controls for all pictures and signal cues. Moreover, individuals with spider phobia who were sensitized by the exposure to phobic stimuli (i.e. post-exposure participants) responded with an increased P1 also in phobia-irrelevant conditions. In contrast, no group differences between spider-phobic and non-phobic individuals were observed in the P1-amplitudes during viewing of phobia-irrelevant stimuli in the pre-exposure group. In addition, cues signaling neutral pictures elicited decreased stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN) compared with cues signaling emotional pictures. Moreover, emotional pictures and cues signaling emotional pictures evoked larger early posterior negativity (EPN) and late positive potential (LPP) than neutral stimuli. Spider phobics showed greater selective attention effects than controls for phobia-relevant pictures (increased EPN and LPP) and cues (increased LPP and SPN). Increased sensitization of the attention system observed in spider-phobic individuals might facilitate fear conditioning and promote generalization of fear playing an important role in the maintenance of anxiety disorders.
Topics: Animals; Attention; Brain; Brain Mapping; Cues; Electroencephalography; Emotions; Evoked Potentials; Fear; Female; Humans; Male; Phobic Disorders; Photic Stimulation; Spiders
Prevalence and Characterization of Specific Phobia Disorder in People over 65 Years Old in a Madrid Community Sample (Spain) and its Relationship to Quality of Life.International Journal of Environmental... Mar 2020The prevalence of anxiety disorders over the last year among seniors ranged from 3.6% to 17.2%. The most prevalent disorders are specific phobias. Data are needed...
The prevalence of anxiety disorders over the last year among seniors ranged from 3.6% to 17.2%. The most prevalent disorders are specific phobias. Data are needed concerning the consequences of specific phobia disorder on the level of functioning and quality of life of older people, the age of onset of specific phobia disorder, and the duration of episodes. In total, 555 community-dwelling people aged between 65 and 84 years who lived in Madrid (Spain) were assessed (Composite International Diagnostic Interview for people over 65 years (CIDI65+), WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS II), Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Older Adults (HoNOS65+), World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief (WHOQOL-BREF). Prevalence rates and odds ratio, t-tests, binary logistic regression, and point-biserial correlations were calculated. A total of 12.07% of the sample suffered a specific phobia disorder over the last year. The average age at onset of the specific phobia was 38.78 (sd = 21.61) years. The mean duration of the phobia was approximately 20 (sd = 20) years. A significant effect of the specific phobia was found for the current levels of functioning and quality of life: WHOQOL-BREF total score ( < 0.05), WHODAS II overall score ( < 0.01), and HoNOS65+ total score ( < 0.001). Having specific phobia disorder decreased the level of functioning and negatively affected the quality of life. These data suggest the need for primary healthcare professionals to include the detection of specific phobia disorders in their protocols because people do not receive treatment for this problem, and they might carry it throughout their lives.
Topics: Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Anxiety Disorders; Female; Humans; Male; Phobic Disorders; Prevalence; Quality of Life; Spain
Scientific Reports Jul 2020Specific phobia is associated with aberrant brain activation in confrontation paradigms with phobic stimuli. In previous EEG research enhanced event-related potentials...
Specific phobia is associated with aberrant brain activation in confrontation paradigms with phobic stimuli. In previous EEG research enhanced event-related potentials (ERPs) in the late-positive potential (LPP) window have been observed. Further, studies with functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and fMRI suggest that spider phobia is associated with enhanced activation within cortical and subcortical areas. In the current study we investigated the neuronal correlates of spider phobia in a combined fNIRS-EEG study. To this end, 37 spider phobic patients (PP) and 32 healthy controls (HC) underwent a symptom provocation paradigm during which subjects watched video clips of spiders and domestic animals (confrontation phase) after being primed on the content of the video (anticipation phase). Simultaneously, fNIRS, EEG, electromyography (EMG), electrocardiography and behavioral measures were assessed. Results showed increased LPP amplitudes, increased hemodynamic responses in the cognitive control network, and increased EMG activity and heart rate during spider conditions in PP in comparison to HC. Furthermore, in behavioral ratings PP showed higher emotional distress and avoidance. Behavioral ratings, fNIRS and EEG data showed positive correlations on a between-subject as well as on a within-subject level. Our results merge the existing data on neurophysiological correlates of phobic stimulus processing in hemodynamic and electrophysiological research and extend those of static visual material (pictures) to dynamic visual material (videos).
Topics: Adult; Animals; Case-Control Studies; Electroencephalography; Female; Humans; Male; Neurons; Phobic Disorders; Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared; Spiders