The Journal of General Virology Dec 2021Viruses in the family are found in a wide variety of vertebrate hosts. Enveloped virions are 80-100 nm in diameter with an inner core containing the viral genome and...
Viruses in the family are found in a wide variety of vertebrate hosts. Enveloped virions are 80-100 nm in diameter with an inner core containing the viral genome and replicative enzymes. Core morphology is often characteristic for viruses within the same genus. Replication involves reverse transcription and integration into host cell DNA, resulting in a provirus. Integration into germline cells can result in a heritable provirus known as an endogenous retrovirus. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the family , which is available at ictv.global/report/retroviridae.
Topics: Animals; DNA Viruses; Genome, Viral; Host Specificity; Retroviridae; Vertebrates; Virion; Virus Replication
Relationships of gag-pol diversity between Ty3/Gypsy and Retroviridae LTR retroelements and the three kings hypothesis.BMC Evolutionary Biology Oct 2008The origin of vertebrate retroviruses (Retroviridae) is yet to be thoroughly investigated, but due to their similarity and identical gag-pol (and env) genome structure,... (Comparative Study)
The origin of vertebrate retroviruses (Retroviridae) is yet to be thoroughly investigated, but due to their similarity and identical gag-pol (and env) genome structure, it is accepted that they evolve from Ty3/Gypsy LTR retroelements the retrotransposons and retroviruses of plants, fungi and animals. These 2 groups of LTR retroelements code for 3 proteins rarely studied due to the high variability - gag polyprotein, protease and GPY/F module. In relation to 3 previously proposed Retroviridae classes I, II and II, investigation of the above proteins conclusively uncovers important insights regarding the ancient history of Ty3/Gypsy and Retroviridae LTR retroelements.
We performed a comprehensive study of 120 non-redundant Ty3/Gypsy and Retroviridae LTR retroelements. Phylogenetic reconstruction inferred based on the concatenated analysis of the gag and pol polyproteins shows a robust phylogenetic signal regarding the clustering of OTUs. Evaluation of gag and pol polyproteins separately yields discordant information. While pol signal supports the traditional perspective (2 monophyletic groups), gag polyprotein describes an alternative scenario where each Retroviridae class can be distantly related with one or more Ty3/Gypsy lineages. We investigated more in depth this evidence through comparative analyses performed based on the gag polyprotein, the protease and the GPY/F module. Our results indicate that contrary to the traditional monophyletic view of the origin of vertebrate retroviruses, the Retroviridae class I is a molecular fossil, preserving features that were probably predominant among Ty3/Gypsy ancestors predating the split of plants, fungi and animals. In contrast, classes II and III maintain other phenotypes that emerged more recently during Ty3/Gypsy evolution.
The 3 Retroviridae classes I, II and III exhibit phenotypic differences that delineate a network never before reported between Ty3/Gypsy and Retroviridae LTR retroelements. This new scenario reveals how the diversity of vertebrate retroviruses is polyphyletically recurrent into the Ty3/Gypsy evolution, i.e. older than previously thought. The simplest hypothesis to explain this finding is that classes I, II and III trace back to at least 3 Ty3/Gypsy ancestors that emerged at different evolutionary times prior to protostomes-deuterostomes divergence. We have called this "the three kings hypothesis" concerning the origin of vertebrate retroviruses.
Topics: Amino Acid Sequence; Evolution, Molecular; Gene Products, gag; Gene Products, pol; Isoenzymes; Molecular Sequence Data; Phenotype; Phylogeny; Polymorphism, Genetic; Retroelements; Retroviridae; Retroviridae Proteins; Sequence Alignment; Sequence Analysis, Protein; Terminal Repeat Sequences
Communications Biology Mar 2021Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) is a kind of classical multi-functional growth factor that plays a vital role in the formation and maintenance of bone, cartilage,...
Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) is a kind of classical multi-functional growth factor that plays a vital role in the formation and maintenance of bone, cartilage, muscle, blood vessels, and the regulation of adipogenesis and thermogenesis. However, understanding of the role of BMPs in antiviral immunity is still limited. Here we demonstrate that Bmp8a is a newly-identified positive regulator for antiviral immune responses. The bmp8a zebrafish, when infected with viruses, show reduced antiviral immunity and increased viral load and mortality. We also show for the first time that Bmp8a interacts with Alk6a, which promotes the phosphorylation of Tbk1 and Irf3 through p38 MAPK pathway, and induces the production of type I interferons (IFNs) in response to viral infection. Our study uncovers a previously unrecognized role of Bmp8a in regulation of antiviral immune responses and provides a target for controlling viral infection.
Topics: Animals; Animals, Genetically Modified; Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type I; Bone Morphogenetic Proteins; Gene Knockout Techniques; Host-Pathogen Interactions; Interferon Regulatory Factor-3; Interferon Type I; Phosphorylation; Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases; Retroviridae; Retroviridae Infections; Signal Transduction; Viral Load; Virus Replication; Zebrafish; Zebrafish Proteins; p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
In vivo imaging of retrovirus infection reveals a role for Siglec-1/CD169 in multiple routes of transmission.ELife Jul 2021Early events in retrovirus transmission are determined by interactions between incoming viruses and frontline cells near entry sites. Despite their importance for...
Early events in retrovirus transmission are determined by interactions between incoming viruses and frontline cells near entry sites. Despite their importance for retroviral pathogenesis, very little is known about these events. We developed a bioluminescence imaging (BLI)-guided multiscale imaging approach to study these events in vivo. Engineered murine leukemia reporter viruses allowed us to monitor individual stages of retrovirus life cycle including virus particle flow, virus entry into cells, infection and spread for retroorbital, subcutaneous, and oral routes. BLI permitted temporal tracking of orally administered retroviruses along the gastrointestinal tract as they traversed the lumen through Peyer's patches to reach the draining mesenteric sac. Importantly, capture and acquisition of lymph-, blood-, and milk-borne retroviruses spanning three routes was promoted by a common host factor, the I-type lectin CD169, expressed on sentinel macrophages. These results highlight how retroviruses co-opt the immune surveillance function of tissue-resident sentinel macrophages for establishing infection.
Topics: Animals; Disease Models, Animal; Female; Humans; Leukemia Virus, Murine; Life Cycle Stages; Lymph Nodes; Macrophages; Male; Mammary Glands, Human; Mice; Retroviridae; Retroviridae Infections; Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 1; Spleen; Virion; Virus Internalization
Viruses May 2021Immunotherapy has been shown to be highly effective in some types of cancer caused by viruses. Gene therapy involves insertion or modification of a therapeutic gene, to... (Review)
Immunotherapy has been shown to be highly effective in some types of cancer caused by viruses. Gene therapy involves insertion or modification of a therapeutic gene, to correct for inappropriate gene products that cause/may cause diseases. Both these types of therapy have been used as alternative ways to avoid cancers caused by oncoviruses. In this review, we summarize recent studies on immunotherapy and gene therapy including the topics of oncolytic immunotherapy, immune checkpoint inhibitors, gene replacement, antisense oligonucleotides, RNA interference, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-based gene editing, transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and custom treatment for Epstein-Barr virus, human T-lymphotropic virus 1, hepatitis B virus, human papillomavirus, hepatitis C virus, herpesvirus associated with Kaposi's sarcoma, Merkel cell polyomavirus, and cytomegalovirus.
Topics: Animals; Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats; Gene Editing; Genetic Therapy; Humans; Immunotherapy; Retroviridae; Retroviridae Infections
Journal of Virology May 2020Koala retrovirus (KoRV) is of an interest to virologists due to its currently active endogenization into the koala () genome. Although KoRV has frequently been isolated...
Koala retrovirus (KoRV) is of an interest to virologists due to its currently active endogenization into the koala () genome. Although KoRV has frequently been isolated in wild and captive koala populations, its pathogenesis and transmission remain to be fully characterized, and most previous research has concentrated on adult koalas rather than on joeys. Here, we characterized KoRV isolates obtained from a deceased male joey and its parents (animals reared in a Japanese zoo) to investigate KoRV transmission mode and pathogenesis. We sequenced the KoRV long terminal repeat (LTR) and envelope genes isolated from the joey and its parents and found KoRV-A and KoRV-C in genomic DNA from both the parents and the joey. Notably, both parents were also positive for KoRV-B, whereas the joey was KoRV-B negative, further confirming that KoRV-B is an exogenous strain. The KoRV LTR sequence of the joey was considerably closer to that of its sire than its dam. For further characterization, total KoRV, KoRV-A, KoRV-B, and KoRV-C proviral loads were quantified in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the parents and in blood samples from the joey. Total KoRV, KoRV-A, and KoRV-C proviral loads were also quantified for different tissues (bone, liver, kidney, lung, spleen, heart, and muscle) from the joey, revealing differences suggestive of a distinct tissue tropism (highest total KoRV proviral load in the spleen and lowest in bone). The amount of KoRV-C in the parents was less than that in the joey. Our findings contribute to an improved understanding of KoRV pathogenesis and transmission mode and highlight useful areas for future research. KoRV is unique among retroviruses in that one strain (KoRV-A) is undergoing endogenization, whereas the other main subtype (KoRV-B) and another subtype (KoRV-C) are reportedly exogenous strains. Its transmission and pathogenesis are of interest in the study of retroviruses and are crucial for any conservation strategy geared toward koala health. This study provides new evidence on the modes of KoRV transmission from parent koalas to their joey. We found vertical transmission of KoRV-A, confirming its endogenization, but with closer conservation between the joey and its sire than its dam (previous reports on joeys are rare but have postulated dam-to-joey vertical transmission). This is also the first report of a KoRV-B-negative joey from KoRV-B-positive parents, contrasting with the few previous reports of 100% transmission of KoRV-B from dams to joeys. Thus, the results in this study give some novel insights for the transmission mode of KoRV.
Topics: Animals; Evolution, Molecular; Female; Japan; Leukocytes, Mononuclear; Male; Phascolarctidae; Retroviridae; Retroviridae Infections; Terminal Repeat Sequences
Scientific Reports Jan 2020Koala retrovirus (KoRV) displays features of both an endogenous and exogenous virus and is linked to neoplasia and immunosuppression in koalas. This study explores the...
Koala retrovirus (KoRV) displays features of both an endogenous and exogenous virus and is linked to neoplasia and immunosuppression in koalas. This study explores the apparent differences in the nature and impact of KoRV infection between geographically and genetically separated "northern" and "southern" koala populations, by investigating the disease status, completeness of the KoRV genome and the proviral (DNA) and viral (RNA) loads of 71 northern and 97 southern koalas. All northern animals were positive for all KoRV genes (gag, pro-pol and env) in both DNA and RNA forms, whereas many southern animals were missing one or more KoRV genes. There was a significant relationship between the completeness of the KoRV genome and clinical status in this population. The proviral and viral loads of the northern population were significantly higher than those of the southern population (P < 0.0001), and many provirus-positive southern animals failed to express any detectable KoRV RNA. Across both populations there was a positive association between proviral load and neoplasia (P = 0.009). Potential reasons for the differences in the nature of KoRV infection between the two populations are discussed.
Topics: Aging; Animals; Australia; DNA; Female; Gene Products, env; Gene Products, gag; Gene Products, pol; Male; Phascolarctidae; Proviruses; RNA, Viral; Retroviridae; Retroviridae Infections; Viral Load
Retroviral Antisense Transcripts and Genes: 33 Years after First Predicted, a Silent Retroviral Revolution?Viruses Nov 2021Paradigm shifts throughout the history of microbiology have typically been ignored, or met with skepticism and resistance, by the scientific community. This has been... (Review)
Paradigm shifts throughout the history of microbiology have typically been ignored, or met with skepticism and resistance, by the scientific community. This has been especially true in the field of virology, where the discovery of a "", or infectious fluid remaining after excluding bacteria by filtration, was initially ignored because it did not coincide with the established view of microorganisms. Subsequent studies on such infectious agents, eventually termed "viruses", were met with skepticism. However, after an abundance of proof accumulated, viruses were eventually acknowledged as defined microbiological entities. Next, the proposed role of viruses in oncogenesis in animals was disputed, as was the unique mechanism of genome replication by reverse transcription of RNA by the retroviruses. This same pattern of skepticism holds true for the prediction of the existence of retroviral "antisense" transcripts and genes. From the time of their discovery, it was thought that retroviruses encoded proteins on only one strand of proviral DNA. However, in 1988, it was predicted that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), and other retroviruses, express an antisense protein encoded on the DNA strand opposite that encoding the known viral proteins. Confirmation came quickly with the characterization of the antisense protein, HBZ, of the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), and the finding that both the protein and its antisense mRNA transcript play key roles in viral replication and pathogenesis. However, acceptance of the existence, and potential importance, of a corresponding antisense transcript and protein (ASP) in HIV-1 infection and pathogenesis has lagged, despite gradually accumulating theoretical and experimental evidence. The most striking theoretical evidence is the finding that is highly conserved in group M viruses and correlates exclusively with subtypes, or clades, responsible for the AIDS pandemic. This review outlines the history of the major shifts in thought pertaining to the nature and characteristics of viruses, and in particular retroviruses, and details the development of the hypothesis that retroviral antisense transcripts and genes exist. We conclude that there is a need to accelerate studies on ASP, and its transcript(s), with the view that both may be important, and overlooked, targets in anti-HIV therapeutic and vaccine strategies.
Topics: Carcinogenesis; Genome, Viral; HIV-1; History, 20th Century; History, 21st Century; Human Immunodeficiency Virus Proteins; Human T-lymphotropic virus 1; Humans; Open Reading Frames; RNA, Antisense; RNA, Messenger; Retroviridae; Retroviridae Proteins; Transcription, Genetic; Viral Envelope Proteins; Virology; Virus Replication
MBio Jan 2020Interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) proteins are encoded by many vertebrate species and exhibit antiviral activities against a wide range of viruses. IFITM3, when...
Interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) proteins are encoded by many vertebrate species and exhibit antiviral activities against a wide range of viruses. IFITM3, when present in virus-producing cells, reduces the fusion potential of HIV-1 virions, but the mechanism is poorly understood. To define the breadth and mechanistic basis for the antiviral activity of IFITM3, we took advantage of a murine leukemia virus (MLV)-based pseudotyping system. By carefully controlling amounts of IFITM3 and envelope protein (Env) in virus-producing cells, we found that IFITM3 potently inhibits MLV infectivity when Env levels are limiting. Loss of infectivity was associated with defective proteolytic processing of Env and lysosomal degradation of the Env precursor. Ecotropic and xenotropic variants of MLV Env, as well as HIV-1 Env and vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G), are sensitive to IFITM3, whereas Ebola glycoprotein is resistant, suggesting that IFITM3 selectively inactivates certain viral glycoproteins. Furthermore, endogenous IFITM3 in human and murine cells negatively regulates MLV Env abundance. However, we found that the negative impact of IFITM3 on virion infectivity is greater than its impact on decreasing Env incorporation, suggesting that IFITM3 may impair Env function, as well as reduce the amount of Env in virions. Finally, we demonstrate that loss of virion infectivity mediated by IFITM3 is reversed by the expression of glycoGag, a murine retrovirus accessory protein previously shown to antagonize the antiviral activity of SERINC proteins. Overall, we show that IFITM3 impairs virion infectivity by regulating Env quantity and function but that enhanced Env expression and glycoGag confer viral resistance to IFITM3. The viral envelope glycoprotein, known as "Env" in , is found on the virion surface and facilitates virus entry into cells by mediating cell attachment and fusion. Env is a major structural component of retroviruses and is targeted by all arms of the immune response, including adaptive and innate immunity. Less is known about how cell-intrinsic immunity prevents retrovirus replication at the level of individual cells. Here, we show that cellular IFITM3 and IFITM2 inhibit the fusion potential of retroviral virions by inhibiting Env protein via a two-pronged mechanism. IFITM proteins inhibit Env abundance in cells and also impair its function when levels are low. The posttranslational block of retroviral Env function by IFITM proteins is likely to impede both exogenous and endogenous retrovirus replication. In support of a relevant role for IFITM3 in retrovirus control, the retroviral accessory protein glycoGag counteracts IFITM3 function to promote virus infectivity.
Topics: Animals; HIV-1; Host-Pathogen Interactions; Humans; Immunity, Innate; Leukemia Virus, Murine; Lysosomes; Membrane Proteins; Mice; Protein Binding; Protein Transport; Proteolysis; RNA-Binding Proteins; Retroviridae; Retroviridae Infections; Viral Envelope Proteins
Small-Angle X-ray Scattering Models of APOBEC3B Catalytic Domain in a Complex with a Single-Stranded DNA Inhibitor.Viruses Feb 2021In normal cells APOBEC3 (A3A-A3H) enzymes as part of the innate immune system deaminate cytosine to uracil on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) to scramble DNA in order to...
In normal cells APOBEC3 (A3A-A3H) enzymes as part of the innate immune system deaminate cytosine to uracil on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) to scramble DNA in order to give protection against a range of exogenous retroviruses, DNA-based parasites, and endogenous retroelements. However, some viruses and cancer cells use these enzymes, especially A3A and A3B, to escape the adaptive immune response and thereby lead to the evolution of drug resistance. We have synthesized first-in-class inhibitors featuring modified ssDNA. We present models based on small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data that (1) confirm that the mode of binding of inhibitor to an active A3B C-terminal domain construct in the solution state is the same as the mode of binding substrate to inactive mutants of A3A and A3B revealed in X-ray crystal structures and (2) give insight into the disulfide-linked inactive dimer formed under the oxidizing conditions of purification.
Topics: Catalytic Domain; Cytidine Deaminase; DNA, Single-Stranded; Dimerization; Humans; Minor Histocompatibility Antigens; Mutation; RNA, Viral; Retroviridae; Retroviridae Infections; Scattering, Small Angle